Physical Geography of India : facts, information

    India is geographically very rich and diverse country. It has all the physiogeographic features one expect in a country. It has Mountains, Plateau, Coastal Area, desert. Based on physical features, India is broadly divivded into following sections-
    1. The great mountain of North
    2. Northern Plain
    3.  Peninsular Plateau
    4. Coastal Plains
    5. Thar Desert
    6. Islands

    The great Mountain of North:

    • The main mountain of north is the Himalaya.It is about 2400KM long and covers Kashmir to Arunachal Pradesh.
    • Himalaya consists three parallel ranges in its longitudinal extent. They are - Himadri or Inner Himalaya or Greater Himalaya, Himachal or lesser Himalaya, Siwaliks or Outer Himalaya
    Ranges Facts
    • It is the northern most range
    • The average height of this range is 6000 Metre and average width is 120 KM. It consists most of the highest peaks such as - Mt. Everest, Nanga Parbat, Kanchenjunga
    • Ganges and Yamuna is originated from this range
    •  This range lies between the Himadri and Siwalik range
    • The average height of this range is 4000 Metre and average width is 60-80 KM.
    • Some of the important ranges in this are - Dhaula Dhar, Pir Panjal, Mahabharata
    • Many famous hill stations are located in this range. Such as - Shimla, Mussoorie, Nanital etc
    •  It is the outermost range
    • The average height of this range is 1000 Metre and average width is 10-50 KM.
    • The valleys which lies between the Himachal and Siwalik are called Duns

    Northern Plain:

    • Northern plain is located between the great northern mountain and peninsular plateau
    • This plain is formed by the three major rivers - Ganges, Indus, Brahmaputra and their tributary rivers.
    • This plain covers the area of Indian states Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, West Bengal, Assam
    • As the plain is formed by the deposition of rivers, it is very fertile and source of major food grains in India.
    • Northern Plain is divided into three sections - Punjab Plains, Ganges Plains, Brahmaputra Plains
    Plains Facts
    Punjab Plain
    •  This plain is formed by the river Indus and its five tributaries - Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej and Beas. Thats why this plain is also reffered as Land of five rivers
    • Indian state Punjab and Haryana comes under this plain. Larger part of this plain is in Pakistan
    • Doab's are the features of this plain. Doab's are the land between two rivers
     Ganges Plain
    •  This plain is formed by the river Ganges and its tributaries.
    • Uttar Pradesh, Delhi, Bihar, Haryana, West Bengal lies in this plain.
    • This is the largest part of Great Indian Plain
     Brahmaputra Plain
    •  This plain is build by Brahmaputra and its tributaries
    • This plain is also known as Assam Plain as most of its part is in Assam

    • On the basis of physical features, the northern plain is divided into following parts from north to south - Bhabar Region, Terai Region, Bangar Region, Kadar Region
    Regions Information
    • This region lies in the foothills of Himalaya
    • It is 8-16 Km wide
    • This region contains stones and pebbles mostly
    • River speed is very fast in this region
    • This region lies south of Bhabar and is 15-30 KM wide
    • This region is covered by thick forest
    • This region is good for cultivation
    • Rivers is speed is fast
    • It lies south of Terai. It si the higher part of plain
    • This region is less fertile as it is made of old alluvium and coarser sediments.
    • It lies south of Bangar and it is the lower part of plain
    • This is fertile land and it is made of newer alluvium.
    • This region is very prone to floods

     Peninsular Plateau:

    • It lies to the south of northern plain
    • It's shape is almost similar to a triangle whose base lies to the southern edge of the northern plain and kanyakumari is the apex
    • The average height of this plateau is 600-900 Metre. The highest peak of the peninsular India is Anamudi (2695 Metre) of Kerala
    • Rounded hills and shallow valleys are the physical features of this land
    • It is one of the oldest land of earth and formed from the Gondwana land
    • Peninsular Plateau can be divided into two sections - 1) Central Highland and 2) Deccan Plaeau
    Sections Facts
    Central Highland
    • Central highland is situated to the north of narmada river
    • This plateau consists Malwa Plateau, Chotanagpur Plateau, Meghalaya Plateau, Vidhya Range, Satpura Range, Aravali Range
    • The highest peak is Gurusikhar (1722 M)
    Deccan Plateau
    • Deccan Plateau is bounded by the Satpura Range in north, Eastern Ghats in east and Western Ghats in west
    • The rivers of Deccan Plateau (Kaveri, Godavari, Krishna)flows from West to East
    • Deccan Plateau consists Andhra Plateau, Karnataka Plateau, Maharashtra Plateau

    Thar Desert:

    • India's only desert is the Thar desert. Larger part of this desert lies in the Indian state Rajasthan. Some portion of this desert is spread into Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab and Pakistan
    • Luni is the only river which flows from this land
    • It is also known as The Great Indian Desert or Marusthali
    • Thar receives only 150mm rainfall in a year. The temperature rises to 49 degree in summer and in the winter it falls to zero degree sometimes
    • Great Rann of Kuchchh falls into this desert. It is a salt marsh located in Kutch, Gujarat

    The Coastal Plains:

    • Coastal plains of India are situated along the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea
    • Coastal plains are divided into - Eastern Coastal plain and Western Coastal Plain
    Coastal Plains Description
    Eastern Coastal Plain
    • It lies along the Bay of Bengal
    • It is about 1100 KM long
    • It covers the Indian states West Bengal, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu
    • Eastern Coast is divided into - Northern Circas which lies between Krishna and mahanadi rivers (West Bengal, Odisha) and Coromandal Coast which lies between Krishna and kaveri river (Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu)
    • Main rivers are - Mahanadi, Godavari, Kaveri, Krishna
    Western Coastal Plain
    • It lies along the Arabian sea
    • It is about 1400 Km long
    • It covers the Indian states - Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Goa, Kerala
    • It is divided into four parts - Konken Coast (Mumbai, Goa), Kannada plain (Karnataka), Malabar Coast (Kerala) and Coast of Gujarat (Gujarat)
    • Main rivers are - Tapi, Narmada, Mandavi


    • India has two groups of islands - Andaman and Nicobar, Lakshadweep
    Islands Information
    Andaman and Nicobar
    • It is located in the Bay of Bengal
    • It is about 1255 Km of south from Kolkata
    • It is divided into Andaman islands (North) and Nicobar Islands (South)
    • India's only active volcano is the Barren Islan of Andaman. Another famous volcanic island is Narcondam
    • It lies in the Arabian Sea
    • It is about 200-300 Km from the coast of Kerala
    • It consists about 36 Islands