Raj Kapoor: facts, biography, information

Raj Kapoor was a famous Indian film actor, director and producer. He is famous for his films like Mera naam Joker, Awara, Sangam. He is also called as “Showman of Indian Cinema”.

Nargis, Raj Kapoor, Dilip Kumar
  • He was born on 14 December 1924 in Peshawar, India (Currently in Pakistan).
  • His father was Prithviraj Kapoor and his mother was Ramsarni Devi Kapoor. Prithviraj Kapoor and Ramsarni Devi Kapoor had six children. Raj Kapoor was the eldest. His brother Shashi Kapoor and the late Shammi Kapoor are also actor. His father was also an actor. He married to Krishna Malhotra and had five children.
  • He completed his education from Colonel Brown Cambridge School, Dehradun and St Xavier's Collegiate School.
  • He appeared for the first time in the film Inquilab. He was only 10 years old at that time. His first successful film as a lead actor was Neel Kamal opposite Madhubala.
  • In the year 1924, he established the R K films and directed the film Aag. He was only 24 at that time. That made him the youngest film director at that time.
  • His some of the famous films as director and actor were - Awaara, Shri 420,Sangam, Jagte Raho and Jis Desh Men Ganga Behti Hai.
  • In 1970, he made the film Mera Naam Joker. It was his ambitious project and took lot of effort and time. But the film was a disaster and he suffered from financial crisis. Later the film turned into a classic and critics mentioned it as one of the best film directed by Raj Kapoor.
  • He also launched his sons Randhir Kapoor and Rishi Kapoor in his films Kal Aaj Aur Kal and Bobby.
  • He is also called as "Charlie Chaplin of Indian cinema” for portraying tramp like character in his films.
  • He was honored with many awards. He won Dadasaheb Phalke Award in 1987. He was also bestowed with Padma Bhushan. He won three National Awards in his lifetime.
  • He died on 2 June 1988 due to asthma. At that time, he was working on the film Henna. Which was later completed by his sons and released in 1991. 
Famous Movies as Actor:
Awara, Mera Naam Joker, Sangam, Shri 420, Barsat, Jis Desh Mein Ganga Rehta Hain, Neel Kamal, Bewafa, Jagte Raho, Amar Prem, Inquilab, Parvarish, Do Ustad, Anari, Sapno Ka Saudagar, Teesri kasam, Phir Subha Hogi, Chori Chori, Dil Hi Toh Hai, Andaz, Dulha Dulhan
Famous Movies as Director:
Shree 420, Sangam, Mera Naam Joker, Awara, Bobby, Ram Teri Ganga Maili, Satyam Shivam Sundaram, Prem Rog, Aag, Barsaat

Quick Facts About Raj Kapoor

Name: Raj Kapoor
AKA: Showman of indian Cinema
Charlie Chaplin of India
D.O.B 14 December 1924
Family: Father: Prithviraj Kapoor
Mother: Ramsarni Kapoor
Wife: Krishna Kapoor
Brother: Shashi Kapoor and the late Shammi Kapoor
Sister: Urmila Sial
Children: Rishi Kapoor, Rajiv Kapoor, Rima Kapoor Jain, Ritu Nanda, Randhir Kapoor
 Education: Colonel Brown Cambridge School, Dehradun and St Xavier's Collegiate School 
Famous as: Actor, Director, Producer
Awards: Dadasaheb Phalke Award (1987), Padma Bhushan (1971), 3 National Film Awards and 11 Filmfare Awards
Death: 2 June 1988

Interesting facts and information about Bollywood

Bollywood generally refers to Indian Film Industry. But in more accurate form it is the Hindi film industry based in Mumbai. Bollywood is the combination of two words “Bombay” (Mumbai was formally known as Bombay) and “Hollywood”.

Bollywood
  • Bollywood is one of the largest film producers in the world. Around 200-300 films are produced each year. Which earns around 3000-4000 crores each year.
  • The first film made in India was the Raja Harishchandra (1913). It was a silent movie. The film was made by Dadasaheb Phalke. He is also called the Father of Indian Cinema. The first talkie of Indian Cinema was Alam Ara (1931).
  • The era 1940-1960 is regarded as the Golden era of Bollywood. In this period several critically hit films were made. Some them are- Awaara (1951), Aan (1952), Pyaasa (1957), Mother India (1957), Madhumati (1958), Kaagaz Ke Phool (1959).
  • The first color film of India was Kisan Kanya. It was made in 1937. But the trend of color cinema started during the 1950.
  • Bollywood movies are famous for its songs and dances. They are part of Indian films from the beginning of Talkies. The first Talkie Alam Ara had seven songs.
  • Dadasaheb Phalke award is the highest award of Indian Film Industry. Other prestigious awards are National Awards, Film fare awards. Dadasaheb phalke award was first awarded to Devika Rani in 1969.
  • Dilwale Dulhaniya Le Jayenge is the longest running film of the world. It ran for about 1000 weeks.
  • The longest movie of Bollywood is “Gangs of Wasseypur”. It was realased as single film in cannes film festival. It is about 319 minutes long.
  • Lagaan was the first film which was released in China.
  • First Indian cinema to get Palme d'Or at Cannes Film Festival was Neecha Nagar. It was released in 1946. Mother India was the first Indian movie which got Oscar Nomination for Best Foreign Language Film.

Overview of Bollywood

1950-1959

Movies: Awara, Devdas, Do Bigha Zameen, Baazi, Chalti ka naam Gaadi, Kaagaz ke phool, Naya Daur, Pyaasa, Madhumati, Boot Polish, Mother India, Sadhna, Jhanak Jhanak Payal Baaje, Mirza Ghalib
Actors: Dilip Kumar, Raj Kapoor, Dev Anand, Bharat Bhushan, Guru Dutt, Balraj Sahni, Kishore Kumar, Ashok Kumar, Mehmood, Prithviraj Kapoor
Actress: Meena Kumari, Nargis, Vyjayanthimala, Madhubala, Nutan, Geeta Bali, Nimmi
Directors: Raj Kapoor, Guru Dutt, Bimal Roy, Mehboob Khan, V. Shantaram, B R Chopra, K. Asif

1960-1969

Movies: Arzoo, Asli Naqli, Sujata, Mughal-e-Azam, Guide, Waqt, Anupama, Neel Kamal, Sangam, Dosti, Padosan, Love in Tokyo, Ram aur Shyam, Brahmachari, Kabuliwala
Actors: Sunil Dutt, Raj Kapoor, Dev Anand, Shammi Kapoor, Dilip Kumar, Prithviraj Kapoor, Dharmendra, Manoj Kumar, Sanjeev Kumar, Mehmood, Raaj Kumar, Firoz Khan
Actress: Meena Kumari, Waheeda Rehman, Sharmila Tagore, Sadhana, Mala Sinha, Saira Banu, Nirupa Roy, Nutan, Vyjayanthimala, Mumtaz, Asha Parekh
Directors: Vijay Anand, Yash Chopra, Bimal Roy, B R Chopra, Raj Kapoor, Mehboob Khan, Hrishikesh Mukherjee, Nasir Hussain, Manmohan Desai

1970-1979

Movies: Sholey, Mera naam Joker, Deewar, Anand, Kabhi Kabhi, Bobby, Trishul, Chupke Chupke, Don, Pakeezah, Kora Kagaz, Roti Kapda Aur Makaan, Amanush, Amar Akbar Anthony, Mausam, Hare Rama Hare Krishna, Kunwara Baap
Actors: Rajesh Khanna, Amitabh Bachchan, Ashok Kumar, Dilip Kumar, Dharmendra, Rishi Kapoor, Sanjeev Kumar, Manoj Kumar, Vinod Khanna, Shashi Kapoor, Rishi Kapoor, Firoz Khan, Shatrughan Sinha, Jeetendra, Amol Palekar
Actress: Rekha, Hema malini, Parveen Babi, Zeenat Aman, Mumtaz, Jaya Bhaduri, Shabana Azmi, Asha Parekh, Waheeda Rehman, Suchitra Sen, Raakhee
Directors: Basu Chaterjee, Yash Chopra, Hrishikesh Mukherjee, Ramesh Sippy, Shyam Benegal, Nasir Hussain, Manmohan Desai, Raj Kapoor, Gulzar

1980-1989

Movies: Angoor, Arth, Chashme Buddoor, Coolie, Ek Duuje Ke Liye, Mr. India, Karma, Meine Pyar Kiya, Nadiya Ke Pyar, Pushpak, Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak, Salaam Bombay, Mirch Masala, Sparsh
Actors: Amitabh Bachchan, Naseeruddin Shah, Anil Kapoor, Mithun Chakraborty, Sunny Deol, Farooq Shaikh, Rajesh Khanna, Kamal Haasan, Vinod Khanna, Shatrughan Sinha, Rishi Kapoor, Om Puri, Sanjay Dutt, Jackie Shroff
Actress: Madhuri Dixit, Dimple Kapadia, Smita Patil, Sridevi, Jaya Pradha, Rekha, Juhi Chawla, Shabana Azmi, Rekha, Raakhee, Hema Malini, Jaya Bachchan
Directors: Yash Chopra, Shyam Benegal, Ramesh Sippy, Subhash Ghai, Hrishikesh Mukherjee, Mahesh Bhatt, Prakesh Mehra, Rakesh Roshan, Ravi Chopra, Raj Kapoor, Gulzar, Govind Nihalani

1990-1999

Movies: Ghayal, Agneepath, Henna, Saudagar, Baazigar, Hum Aapke Hain Koun, 1942: A Love Story, Khalnayak, Damini, Krantiveer, Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge, Rangeela, Raja Hindustani, Dil Toh Pagal Hai, Gupt, Pardes, Ghulam, Kuch kuch Hota Hai, Satya, Border
Actors: Shahrukh Khan, Salman Khan, Aamir Khan, Akshay Kumar, Sanjay Dutt, Govinda, Amitabh Bachchan, Anil Kapoor, Ajay Devgan, Nana Patekar, Sunny Deol, Saif Ali Khan
Actress: Kajol, Juhi Chawla, Manisha Koirala, Madhuri Dixit, Urmila Matondkar, Tabu, Karisma Kapoor, Raveena Tandon, Rani Mukherjee, Sonali Bendre, Govind Nihalani
Directors: Vidhu Vinod Chopra, Mira Nair, Sooraj Barjatya, Rajkumar Santoshi, Mahesh Bhatt, Yash Chopra, David Dhawan, Aditya Chopra, Karan Johar, Ram Gopal Verma, Rakesh Roshan, Abbas Mustan, Priyadarshan, Vikram Bhatt, Mani Ratnam

2000-2009

Movies: Lagaan, Devdas, Kaha Na Pyaar Hai, Dil Chahta Hai, Raaz, Baghban, Company, Dhoom, Black, Page 3, Rang De Basanti, Taare Zameen Par, Jab We Met, Guru, Dostana, Rock on, Lage Raho Munna Bhai, Swades, Munna Bhai MBBS
Actors: Shahrukh khan, Salman Khan, Aamir khan, Hrithik Roshan, Saif Ali Khan, Amitabh Bachchan, Ajay Devgan, Akshay Kumar, Sanjay Dutt
Actress: Aishwarya Rai, Preity Zinta, Tabu, Ameesha Patel, Kareena Kapoor, Kajol, Rani Mukherjee, Bipasha Basu, Vidya Balan, Priyanka Chopra, Deepika Padukone
Directors: Rajkumar Hirani, Vishal Bhardwaj, Sanjay Leela Bhansali, Anurag Kashyap, Ashutosh Gowarikar, Prakash Jha, Dibakar Banerjee, Farhan Akhtar, Mahesh Manjrekar, Aditya Chopra, Ram Gopal Verma, Vidhu Vinod Chopra, Madhur Bhandarkar, Rakeysh Omprakesh Mehra, Imtiaz Ali, Karan Johar, Vikram Bhatt

Interesting facts and information about Bhagavad Gita

Bhagavad Gita is one of the most sacred Hindu religious scripture. Many famous personalities have highly praised the Gita- Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, Herman Hesse, Abdul Kalam, Albert Einstein and many other people.

Arjuna and Krishna at Kurukshetra
  • Gita is a part of Mahabharata. It is part of Bhishma Parva of Mahabharata (Chapters 25 to 42). Mahabharata is a epic scripture of Hinduism.
  • Bhagavad Gita consists 18 Chapters and it has 700 verses. It is written in Sanskrit.
  • It is a conversation between Arjuna and Krishna at the battlefield of Kurukshetra. In the battlefield when Arjuna was unable to decide what is right and what is wrong, he asked several questions to Krishna, Gita captures this questions of Arjuna and Krishna’s answers to those questions.
  • The literal meaning of Gita is “Song of God”.
  • The main theme of Gita is Dharma (Holy Duty). It descripes the different Yoga- Bhakti, Karma, Jnana; and Moksha or liberation.
  • Several commentaries have been written on Gita. Such as Śaṅkara, Rāmānuja, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, Bhāskara, Madhva. These commentaries vary from each other in views and meaning.
  • Charles Wilkins translated the Gita in English for the first time in 1785. Later it was also translated into different European languages.
  • It is believed that three other person besides Arjuna listened the Gita directly from Krishna. They were Sanjay, Hanuman, Barbarik son of Ghatotkach.

Some Quotes about Bhagavad Gita by eminent personalities

"The Bhagavad-Gita is a true scripture of the human race a living creation rather than a book, with a new message for every age and a new meaning for every civilization." ~ Rishi Aurobindo
"When I read the Bhagavad-Gita and reflect about how God created this universe everything else seems so superfluous" - Albert Einstein
"When doubts haunt me, when disappointments stare me in the face, and I see not one ray of hope on the horizon, I turn to Bhagavad-Gita and find a verse to comfort me; and I immediately begin to smile in the midst of overwhelming sorrow. Those who meditate on the Gita will derive fresh joy and new meanings from it every day" - Mahatma Gandhi
"The secret of karma yoga which is to perform actions without any fruitive desires is taught by Lord Krishna in the Bhagavad-Gita." - Vivekananda
"The marvel of the Bhagavad-Gita is its truly beautiful revelation of life’s wisdom which enables philosophy to blossom into religion." - Herman Hesse
"In the morning I bathe my intellect in the stupendous and cosmogonal philosophy of the Bhagavad-gita, in comparison with which our modern world and its literature seem puny and trivial." - Henry David Thoreau

Indian City Chennai : facts, information

Chennai is the capital of Indian state Tamilnadu and one of the best educational, economic center of India. It is one of the best cities to live in India.
Chennai Known For
  • Chennai is the fourth largest city of India (Area wise) and sixth largest city (Population wise).
  • Chennai was formally known as Madras. In 1996, the name was changed from Madras to Chennai.
  • It is famously called as “Detroit of India”. As most of the automobile industry is located here. About one third automobile industry of the country is here.
  • The city lies on the thermal equator which makes it one of the hottest city of world. In May and June, the temperature rises to 40-degree C. It is generally referred as Agni Nakshatram ("fire star") or Kathiri Veyyil.
  • World’s second oldest Municipal Corporation -Greater Chennai Corporation governs Chennai. It was established in 1688.
  • It has the largest number of Heritage buildings in India after Kolkata. Some of them are - Chennai Central, Chennai Egmore, Madras High Court, Ripon Building, Chepauk Palace, College of Engineering, National Art Gallery.
  • It is also known for its art, dance, and culture. It is one of the important center of oldest dance form Bharata Natyam.
  • World’s second largest beach - Marina Beach is in Chennai.
  • It is one of the most attractive tourist destination. It is one of the most favored spot for the foreign tourists in India. That’s why it is sometimes referred as Gateway of South India. Some of the famous places are – Mahabalipuram (UNESCO World Heritage site), Madras Crocodile Bank Trust, Mariana Beach, Elliots Beach, Arignar Anna Zoological Park (One of the largest zoological park of Asia).
  • Chennai is the center of major Hospitals and Medical Facilities. It is sometimes referred as India’s health capital. 
Chennai Places to Visit

Quick information about Chennai

ChennaiInfo
Capital of Tamilnadu
Area 1,189 km2 [4th largest city of India]
Population 8,653,521 [6th largest city of India]
Nick Names Detroit of Asia, Gateway of South India, India's Health Capital
Language Tamil
Rivers Adyar River, Cooum River
Major Tourist places Mariana Beach, Madras Crocodile Bank Trust, Kapaleeshwarar Temple, Elliots Beach, Arignar Zoological Park
Famous Foods Idli, Dosa, Sambar Rice, Kuzhi Paniyaram, Adai, Bajji, Kothu Parotha

Intersting facts and information about Delhi

Delhi is the national capital territory of India. Indian States Haryana and Uttar Pradesh surrounds it. Delhi is also center of Indian politics and famously called as City of Rallies.

India Gate
  • Delhi is the most expansive city of India and second most populous city (First is Mumbai) of India.
  • In 1991, it was declared as the National Capital Territory of India by The Constitution (Sixty-Ninth Amendment) Act, 1991. Under this act, the Central Government and Delhi Government both govern it.
  • Delhi has a very rich history. It was governed by Pandavas to Mughals. It served as the capital of many empires specially during Medieval period.
  • Delhi is one of the most polluted city of World. The air pollution is very high in the core city. It was declared most polluted city of world in 2014 by WHO.
  • Delhi is the home of many heritage sites and monuments which attracts a lot of tourists. Red Fort, Qutab Minar and Humayun's Tomb are the World Heritage sites of Delhi. Other monuments and places are India Gate, Lotus Temple, Purana Qila, Rajghat,
  • Delhi is famous for different foods. It is the place from where Mughlai cuisine originated. It is famous for Kebab, biryani, tandoori, samosa, chole bhature, chole kulche, jalebi. Delhi is also famous for its street foods. Gali Paranthe Wali of Chadni Chowk is famous among the foodies.
  • Azadpur market of Delhi is the largest fruit market of Asia. Khari Baoli Market is the largest Spice market of India.
  • Delhi used to be a walled city which had 14 gates. Among the gates five are still there- Ajmeri Gate, Kashmiri Gate, Lahori Gate, Delhi Gate and Turkman Gate.
  • The major bus services of Delhi are operated by DTC (Delhi Transport Corporation). It is the largest CNG-powered bus service operator in the world.
  • The Ridge of Delhi is famous for bird lovers. It makes Delhi the second most bird-rich capital city.

Quick Information about Delhi

Delhi Info
Capital New Delhi
Nick Name City of Rallies, Political Capital of India
Area 1,484.0 km2 [Rank: 31st]
Population 16,787,941
Language Hindi
Neighbor States Haryana, Uttar Pradesh
Rivers: Yamuna
Districts 11 (New Delhi,North Delhi,North West Delhi,West Delhi, South West Delhi, South Delhi, South East Delhi, Central Delhi, North East Delhi, Shahdara, East Delhi)
Major Tourist Places Akshardham, Qutub Minar, India Gate, Jama Masjid, Red Fort, Yamuna
Major Festivals Diwali, Holi, Guru Nanak's Birthday, Raksha Bandhan, Durga Puja, Holi, Lohri
Famous Foods Kebab, Biryani, Tandoori, Butter chicken, Aloo chaat, Kachori, Samosa, Chole bhature

Interesting facts and information about Mahabharata

Mahabharata is one of the epic of ancient literature. This Sanskrit epic describes the war of Kurukshetra between the Kaurava and the Pandava princes. Mahabharata is the source of inspiration for many movies and serials.

mahabharata
Mahabharata
  • The Sage Vyasa authored the Mahabharata.
  • Sage Vyasa:
    Vyasa was a Sanskrit author. He is also known as Krishna Dvaipāyana, Veda Vyāsa. The literal meaning of Vyasa is Compiler. Many people suggest that Vyasa was not a person but a group of sages having great knowledge of Vedas and Vyasa was the title provided to them. About 28 people had this title. Vyasa has also scribed Vedas and Puranas. Guru Purnima is dedicated to Vyasa for his immense contribution.
  • Mahabharata is the longest text of the world. It consists about 100,000 shlokas and 1.8 million words. The other Indian epic Ramayana, is 4 times smaller than Mahabharata.
  • “Mahabharata” literally means the Great story of Bharata. It is believed that the Mahabharata was written in the early Vedic Period.
  • Mahabharata was first recited by sage Vaisampayana, a disciple of Vyasa. He recited it to the king Janamejaya, the great grandson of Arjuna.
  • Among the different stories and different subsections of Mahabharata, one of the main event was the conversation of Arjuna and Krishna at the battlefield. This conversation created one of the most sacred Hindu religious scripture – “Bhagavad Gita”.
  • Bhagvad Gita:
    Bhagvad Gita is one of the most revered book of Hinduism. This is considered as the summary of Hindu philosophy. Gandhi had called the Gita as Spiritual Dictionary. Bhagvad Gita discusses about the soul, yoga, reincarnation, purpose of life and nature of time in a logical way.
  • It is said that when Vyasa conceived the idea of Mahabharata. He thought that it will not be possible for him to complete it in his lifetime. So, he asked the help of Brahma and finally God Ganesha helped vyasa to write it.
  • It has 18 parvas- Adi, Sabha, Van, Udyog, Virat, Bhisma, Dhron, Kama, Shalya, Stri, Shasti, Anushashan, Ashwamedhie, Ashramvasik, and Shanti. Mahaprasthanic and Swargarohan.
  • Sometimes it is also called as fifth Veda due to vast inner context that it carries.
  • The Kurukshetra war was fought for 18 days. Kurukshetra is in Haryana where this war was fought.
  • Mahabharata has thousands of characters. Each character has a special role in the tale. Among them some of the interesting characters are- Shakuni, Krishna, Ekalavya, Karna, Bhisma, Arjun, Kunti, Draupadi, Ashwatthama, Yuyutsu, Bhima, Duryodhana, Gandhari…..any many more…

Interesting facts and information about Ramayana

Ramayana is an epic poem of ancient India. There are mainly two epic poems of ancient India. One is Ramayana and another is Mahabharata. Both have a very high importance in Hinduism.

Ramayana
  • Rishi Valmiki was the author of Ramayana.
  • Valmiki:
    Valmiki was an Sanskrit poet of ancient India. Initially he was a fierce thief and known as Ratnakar. One day when he met Narada and tried to rob him. He found that Narada was not a bit afraid of him and instead his behavior was very friendly. Narada’s behavior astonished Ratnakar. Then Narada introduced him to the Principles of Karma and pursuit him to leave his sinful acts. To make a penance, Ratnakar sat in meditation for several years. Later when he woke up from his meditation, he wrote the epic poem “Ramayana”.
  • Ramayana is one of the largest literature. It has 24,000 verses, divided into seven Kandas (books) and about 500 sargas (chapters). The Seven Kandas are – Bala kanda, Ayodhya kanda, Aranya kanda, Kishkindha kanda, Sundara kanda, Yuddha kanda, Uttara kanda.
  • There is no clarity on when it was written. Though it is believed that it was written around 4th Century BCE. Sometimes it is reffered as Adi Kavya (adi =first; kavya = poem). It is considered that Ramayana was existed before the Mahabharata.
  • The literal meaning of Ramayana is “Rama’s Journey”. Rama is the central character of Ramayana. Rama is portrayed as an ideal person in the epic.
  • Many authors had written different versions of Ramayana in different languages. Some of them are -
  • Name of Ramayana Author Language
    Ramavataram Kamban Tamil
    Ramcharitamanas Tulsidas Awadhi (Hindi)
    Shri Rama Panchali Krittivas Ojha Bengali
    Gona Budda Reddy Ramayanam Telugu
    Sant Eknath Bhavarth Ramayan Marathi
    Madhava Kandali Saptakanda Ramayana Assamese
    Sarala Das Vilanka Ramayana Odia
    Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan Adhyathmaramayanam Malayalam
    Balaram Das Dandi Ramayana Odia
  • Ramayana has a great impact on Indian art and culture. Many characters and incidents depicted in Ramayana can be found on different Indian Temples and Art. Rama is worshiped as incarnation of God Vishnu. Different literature still use characters of Ramayana. Many movies and TV series are made based on Ramayana.
  • Different characters described in the Ramayana are believed as incarnation of different gods. Like- Rama as incarnation of Vishnu, Sita as incarnation of Laxmi, Laxman as incarnation of Shesha Naga, Hanuman as incarnation of Shiva.

Indian State Kerala: facts, information

Kerala is a south Indian state which is surrounded by Tamilnadu and Karnataka. It is also known as God's Own Country, Spice Garden of India, Land of Coconuts.


Kerala
Kerala
  • It was formed on 1 November 1956. Area wise it is the 22nd largest state of India and 13th largest state as per the population. Malayalam is the main language spoken by the people of Kerala. Thiruvananthapuram is the capital of Kerala. 
  • Kerala has 14 districts- Kasaragod, Kannur, Wayanad, Kozhikode, Palakkad, Thrissur, Ernakulam, Idukki, Malappuram Kottayam, Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam, Alappuzha, Pathanamthitta.
  • Kerala has the highest literacy rate in India. In 1991, Kerala became the first fully literate state of India. Besides having highest literacy rate, it also has highest HDI (Human Development Index) and lowest population growth rate. 
  • Kerala is the highest rubber and black pepper producer of India. Other agricultural products are – Different Spices, Coconut, Cashew, Tea, Coffee. 
  • Anamudi is the highest mountain peak of Kerala. Vembanad is the largest lake of Kerala and Periyar is the longest river. 
  • Kerala is known for its Backwaters among the tourists. It is a network of interconnected canals, rivers, lakes, and brackish lagoons. These are home of many unique sea animals. Different trees and plants surrounding the waterbody creates wonderful atmosphere for the tourists. Different type of houseboats float around this backwaters. 
  • It is the first Indian state which receives rains during the Monsoon. Most of the days (about 120-150) of Kerala are rainy in a year. 
  •  Kerala is the most biodiverse state of India. Around 25% of India's 15,000 plant species are in Kerala. Kerala is famous for Indian elephants. Indian leopard, Nilgiri tahr, Bengal Tiger are also found in the forests of Kerala. 
  •  Technopark of Thiruvananthapuram is the first technology park of India. It is one of the largest IT park of India. 
  • Most of the Keralite are emigrants working in foreign countries, mainly in Arab. 
  •  Kerala is one of the most attractive tourist destination. It has beaches like Kovalam, Varkala, Vizhinjam, Hill stations like Munnar, Nelliyampathy, Wildlife Sancturies like Parambikulam national park, Silent valley, Backwaters like Alapuzha, Kollam. That’s why it is also called “God’s own Country”.
Kerala Info
Capital Thiruvananthapuram
Language Malayalam
Area 38,863 km2[Rank 22nd among Indian states]
Population 33,387,677[Rank 13th among Indian states]
Neighbor States Tamilnadu, Karnataka
Symbols Tree: Coconut; Animal: Indian Elephant; Flower: Golden Shower Tree, Fish: Pearl Spot; Bird: Great Hornbill
Nicknames: God's Own Country, Spice Garden of India, Land of Coconuts
Major Rivers: Periyar, Pamba, Bharatapuzha, Chaliyar, Kalllada, Manimala, Kuppam
Famous Mountain peaks Anamudi, Devimala, Kumarikkal Mala, Meesapulimala, Vellarimala, Anginda, Chembra
Mountain Range Western Ghat
Major Cities Kochi, Thiruvananthapuram, Thrissur, Kottayam, Kannur, Kozhikode, Tirur
Major Tourist Places Alleppey Backwaters, Munnar, Periyar Wildlife sanctuary, Bekal, Cherai, Kollam Beach, Kumarakam, Kavvayi,
Major Festivals Onam, Vishu, Thrissur Pooram Festival, Easter
Famous Foods Sadhya, Appam, Idiyappam, Puttu,

Interesting facts and information about Hinduism



Hinduism is one of the most ancient religions and considered to be one of the four major religions in the world. Originating from India (Asia) and the Vedic culture, Hinduism is now spread in most parts of the world. There are over 1.08 billion of Hindus living around the globe today. Hinduism, also referred to as Sanatan Dharma by certain scholars, is polytheistic by nature.
Swastika

  • A majority of Hindus are found currently living in India, Nepal, Mauritius, the Caribbean, and Bali in Indonesia. India is dominated by an 80% majority of Hindus.
  • The name'Hindu' is taken from the Sanskrit name "Sindhu" of the Indus river given to it by the Aryans in the second millennium BCE.
  • A red dot that is placed on the forehead is a symbol of being a Hindu. It is placed on the forehead before any worshipping or prayers begin. Hindu women use this a beauty symbol and in their context, it is called a Bindi. The red dot implies the divine sight and the spiritual evolution.
  • The religion was founded by no single founder. It is understood from the ancient texts, The Vedas, Puranas, and the Upanishads. Also, epics such as Ramayana and Mahabharata are considered of high importance. A portion of Mahabharata evolved as a separate book of teachings by Lord Sri Krishna, "The BhagvadGita".
  • The religion is polytheistic by nature, i.e. it involves worshipping many gods and goddesses. However, the basic premise is the existence of one supreme power (Brahma) that is channelized in the many gods and goddesses.
  • Buddism, Jainism and Sikhism have all evolved from Hinduism at different times due to different callings from society and times.
  • Karma Theory is an important theory of Hinduism. Reincarnation is believed to be based on karma. They say the cycle of birth, that includes birth, death, and rebirth is based on the Karma (actions) of a human
  • Important symbols of Hinduism are Swastika, Om, lotus, trisula.
  • Hindus respect the cow animal. It is regarded as a mother. Hindus do not eat cow or buffalo flesh and eating such a thing is considered a sin. On the contrary, whatever is naturally created/secreted by cow, such as, cow milk, ghee, even cow urine and dung is considered pure and sacred.
  • The knowledge of Hinduism is preserved in the ancient texts called the Vedas - Rig Veda, Sam Veda, Yajur Veda and Atharva Veda.
  • Yoga is one of the biggest contributions of Hinduism to the whole world. It is a set of techniques of training the mind, body, and soul for the attainment of superior well-being and longevity, spirituality and as well mental balance.
  • Casteism was a form of a division of the society on the basis of the occupation and would be applicable on generations to follow. This practice led to discrimination and exploitation of the lowest class. It has been done away with in modern India post Independence. Presently it is against law to discriminate against or look down up insultingly or abuse on the basis of caste, gender or even region.

Quick Information About Hinduism

Hindu Info
Scriptures Vedas, Upanishads, Bhagavad Gita, Puranas, Ramayan, Mahabharat, Brahmana
Festivals Diwali, Holi, Navaratri, Maha Shivaratri, Krishna Janmashtami,Makar Sankranti or Pongal, Bonalu,Gudi Padwa
Gods  Shiva, Vishnu, Brahma, Ganesha, Parvati, Lakshmi, Durga, Kali,
Symbols  Om, Swastika, Tilak
Scared objects Cow, Banana tree, Turmeric, Vermilion, Tulsi, Beetal
Pilgrimage Dwarka, Tirupati, Rameswaram, Badrinath, Kedarnath, Gangotri, Yamunotri, Puri, Kamakhya, Shirdi, Vaishno Devi temple
Teachers Ramkrishna, Vivekananda, Saibaba, Yogananda, Prabhupada, Aurobindo, Coomaraswamy

Interesting facts and information about the Election Commission of India

Election Commission of India is a constitutionally established authority which is responsible for conducting elections in India.
  • Election commission is a permanent and independent body. It also conducts elections of State Legislatures, President and Vice President.
  • Election Commission is controlled by chief election commissioner and two other election commissioners.
  • President of India appoints the chief election commissioner for a term of six years or up to the age 65 of election commissioner, whichever is earlier. Other two commissioners are appointed by the president and chief election commissioner.
  •  In the beginning there was only the chief commissioner in the election commission. On 16 October, 1989 two additional commissioners were appointed for the first time to reduce the work load of chief election commissioner. Election commission became permanently multi member body after the constitution amendment act,1993.
  • The first election commissioner was Sukumar Sen. Current election commissioner is Achal Kumar Jyoti.
  • The chief election commissioner can be dismissed from his position only through impeachment of parliament. Other two commissioners can be removed by the the president through the recommendation of chief election commissioner.
  • With the improvement of technologies, election commission introduced EVM (electronic voting machine ) to improve election procedures. It was first tried in 1982  in Kerala for legislative assembly elections in limited numbers.

Some facts about EVM

  • EVMs are made of two units – Control unit and Ballot unit. Control unit belongs to polling officer who validates the voter’s identity and ballot unit belongs to voter in secret compartment to cast his vote. Once the polling officer validates the identity, then voter can cast his vote.
  • A EVM can store maximum 3840 votes.
  • EVM’s ballot unit can have 16 candidates. For more candidates, two or more ballot units (Up to 4) are joined. So, EVM’s can be used for maximum 64 candidates
  • EVM does not require external power. It runs by the 6V alkaline battery. Which makes EVM useful in most disconnected constituency also.
  • It is manufactured by BEL, Bangalore and ECI, Hyderabad
NOTA (None of the Above):
This option is provided to voter from 2013. If the voter does not like any of the candidates then he can use NOTA option. This option is based on the principle that “consent requires the ability to withhold consent in an election”. Still now the votes castes against NOTA are counted as invalid. But it is useful to increase voting percentage and thus helps to reduce bogus votes.

Functions of election commission

  • The main function of election commission is to conduct a fair election.
  • Election commission is responsible for declaring different important dates for election, vote counting, declaration of result.Every party needs to be recognized by election commission. They needs to register their electoral symbol..
  • Election commission examines the expenses of the candidates for the election.
  • Before every election, election commission declares a code of conduct to be followed by the parties. 
  • They prepare and revises the voter list and also issues voter’s identity card

Interesting facts and information about Lok Sabha

Lok Sabha is a part of Parliament. It is also called the house of people or the lower house in the parliament.
  • There are 545 members in the Lok Sabha. Out of which 543 members are directly elected from the States (523) and union territories (20). Other two members are selected by Indian president from the Anglo-Indian community. Maximum number of members can be elected for Lok Sabha is 552. Among this 530 from states, 20 from Union Territory and two from Anglo Indian Community
  • No of Members selected from States 523
    No of members selected from Union Territories 20
    No of seats reserved for Scheduled Casts(SC) 84
    No of seats reserved for Schuduled Tribes (ST) 47
    No of seats for Anglo Indian community 2
    Currently the strength of Lok Sabha 545
    Maximum seats of Lok Sabha 552(550 from states and UT & 2 from Anglo Indian community)
  • A person is eligible for the seat of Lok Sabha only if -
  • a) He/she is a citizen of India
    b) His/her age would be greater than 25 years
    c) He/she must not be of unsound mind
    d) He/she must be an elector from any parliamentary constituency
    f) He/she must not hold any profitable post in any government offices.
  • To run the Lok Sabha properly, a speaker and a deputy speaker is elected from the members of Lok Sabha on the first meeting after the election.
  • The members of Lok Sabha are elected for the term of five years. Though in case of emergency this can be extended for a year.
  • The first Lok Sabha was held on 17 April, 1952. Indian Congress won the first election by 75.99% of votes. Jawaharlal Nehru was the first Prime Minister.
  • The quorum (Minimum number of members needed to carry on the meeting of Lok Sabha) of Lok Sabha is 1/10th of its total members. 
  • In a year, Lok Sabha has three sessions (house meeting to conduct business).
  • Session Duration
    Budget Session February to May
    Monsoon Session July to September
    Winter Session November to December
  • "Lok sabha tv" is the lok Sabha's own Tv channel which is headquartered in the premises of parliament.  

Powers of Lok Sabha

  • Any bill (Except Money Bill) can be passed if it is passed in both the houses
  • It has the same power as Rajya Sabha in case of impeachment of president and the judges of supreme court.
  • It has equal power as Rajya Sabha in passing any bill for constitutional amendment.
  • Lok Sabha members has the power to elect the president, vice president.

 Special Powers of Lok Sabha

    1) Money bills can only be passed in Lok Sabha. After a bill is passed in Lok Sabha, it is sent to Rajya Sabha for any recommendations. Rajya Sabha is bound to provide recommendations within 14 days otherwise the bill gets passed automatically. It is up to Lok Sabha to consider or not to consider the recommendations of Rajya Sabha.
    2) Motion of no confidence can only be introduced in Lok Sabha. If it is passed then the prime minister and other council of ministers need to resign from their post.

    Number of Lok Sabha Constituency of Different States and Union Territories

    State/Union Territory Number of Parliamentary seats
    Andhra Pradesh 25
    Arunachal Pradesh 2
    Assam 14
    Bihar 40
    Chhattisgarh 11
    Goa 2
    Gujarat 26
    Haryana 10
    Himachal Pradesh 4
    Jammu and Kashmir 6
    Jharkhand 14
    Karnataka 28
    Kerala 20
    Madhya Pradesh 29
    Maharashtra 48
    Manipur 2
    Meghalaya 2
    Mizoram 1
    Nagaland 1
    Odisha 21
    Punjab 13
    Rajasthan 25
    Sikkim 1
    Tamil Nadu 39
    Telangana 17
    Tripura 2
    Uttar Pradesh 80
    Uttarakhand 5
    West Bengal 42
    Andaman and Nicobar Islands 1
    Chandigarh 1
    Dadra and Nagar Haveli 1
    Daman and Diu 1
    Lakshadweep 1
    NCT of Delhi 7
    Puducherry 1

    Important facts and information about Rajya Sabha

    Rajya Sabha or Council of States is an Indian constitutional body. It is also called the upper house of the parliament.
    Rajya Sabha
    Rajya Sabha
    • Rajya Sabha has 250 members. Among these 250 members, 238 are representatives of States and union territories. Other 12 members are selected by Indian president according to their achievement in science, arts, literature. Currently Rajya Sabha has only 245 members. 233 elected and 12 nominated.
    • The Hindi name “Rajya Sabha” of Council of States was adopted on 23 August 1954.
    • A person is eligible as a member of Rajya Sabha only if a) he/she ïs a citizen of India b) his/her age is greater than 30 years c) he/she must be an elector from the state,for which he/she is representing.
    • Vice president of India acts as the chairman of Rajya Sabha. In his absence deputy chairman take care the job of chairman of Rajya Sabha. The person for the post of deputy chairman is elected from the members of Rajya Sabha.
    • The tenure of the member of Rajya Sabha is six years. After every two years, one third of the total members of Rajya Sabha retires.
    • The first sitting in Rajya Sabha held on 13 may,1952. Unlike the lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha is not dissolved.
    • The Quorum (Minimum number of members to be present to make the meeting of Rajya Sabha valid) of Rajya Sabha is one tenth of total members of Rajya Sabha. 
    • The members of Rajya Sabha are elected by the single transferable vote system. The members of state Legislative assembly selects a predefined number of members for the Rajya Sabha. The number of members one state Legislative Assembly can elect is depended on the population of that state (proportional representation).

    Functions of Rajya Sabha

    • Any bill (except the money bills) needs to be approved by Rajya Sabha to get passed. If the bill gets stuck for more than six months then President calls for a joint session of both the houses to resolve the deadlock.
    • Money Bill:
      Rajya Sabha does not have any power to amend or reject the Money bill. Lok Sabha can only introduce Money bill and once it is approved my Lok Sabha, it is passed to Rajya Sabha for its approval. If Rajya Sabha fails to pass it within 14 days then the bill gets passed without the approval of Rajya Sabha. Also, Lok Sabha does not need to consider the amendments proposed my Rajya Sabha. Lok Sabha can reject all the proposals and pass it.
    • It has the same power as Lok Sabha, for passing any bill for constitutional amendment.
    • The members of Rajya Sabha have the electoral power for selection of President, Vice President. Together with the members of Lok Sabha and all the State Legislative Assemblies they elect the President and Vice President.
    • It has power in the impeachment procedure of president and judges of supreme court and high court.

       Special Powers of Rajya Sabha

    1) Rajya Sabha has the power to make a state list subject into National Importance. If two third majority of the members of Rajya Sabha passes a resolution to support it.
    2) Rajya Sabha can also create or abolish an All India Service. If majority of members (2/3 of Total Members) supports it.

    Number of members different states can elect for Rajya Sabha

    Name of state and union territory No. of Seats
    Andhra Pradesh 11
    Arunachal Pradesh 1
    Assam 7
    Bihar 16
    Chhattisgarh 5
    Goa 1
    Gujarat 11
    Haryana 5
    Himachal Pradesh 3
    Jammu & Kashmir 4
    Jharkhand 6
    Karnataka 12
    Kerala 9
    Madhya Pradesh 11
    Maharashtra 19
    Manipur 1
    Meghalaya 1
    Mizoram 1
    Nagaland 1
    National Capital Territory (Delhi) 3
    Nominated 12
    Odisha 10
    Puducherry 1
    Punjab 7
    Rajasthan 10
    Sikkim 1
    Tamil Nadu 18
    Telangana 7
    Tripura 1
    Uttar Pradesh 31
    Uttarakhand 3
    West Bengal 16
    Total 245

    Manik Bandopadhyay: facts, biography, information

    Manik Bandopadhyay was a Bengali novel writer. He is famous for his novels and short stories that he wrote in his short life of 48 years.
    • He was born on 19 May 1908 in Dumka of Bihar. His original name was Prabodh Kumar Bandhopaddhay.
    • His parents were Harihar Bandopadhyay and Niroda Devi. They had fourteen children. Harihar Bandopadhyay was a government officer and had to visit a lot of place. This gave Manik a chance to connect with many people from his early life. He married to Kamala Devi and had 4 children.
    • He was a brilliant student. He passed the entrance examination in 1926 from Midnapore Zilla School. He secured first division in this examination. He joined the Welleslyvan Mission College at Bankura. In 1928 he passed his I.Sc. with first division. Later he joined the Presidency College, Calcutta. But he was not able to complete it due to financial problem.
    • Manik Bandopadhyay suffered from poverty almost throughout of his life. He started as Headmaster of Mymensingh Teachers Training School. But he switched many jobs in his career. Throughout of his life, his main source of income was writing.
    • His writing career started with the short story Atashimami. This was published in the magazine Bichitra. This story earned him a great respect in literary society. Throughout his life, he had published about 177 short stories
    • His some of novels are- Diba-Ratrir Kabya, Padma Nadir Majhi, Putul Nacher Itikatha. He also wrote some poems but he is mostly known for his short stories and novels.
    • Some Famous Short Stories of Manik Bandopadhyay:
      Atashi Mami (1935), Pragoitihashik (English: Pre-historic, 1937), Mihi O Mota Kahini (1938), Sarisrip (Amphibian, 1939), Bou (The Bride, 1940), Shamudrer Swad (The Taste of the Seas, 1943), Choto Boro (The Big and the Small, 1948), Bhejal (Adulterated, 1944)
      Some Famous Novels of Manik Bandopadhyay:
      Janani (Mother, 1935), Diba-Ratrir Kabya (Poetry of Days and Nights, 1935), Padma Nadir Majhi (The Boatman of River Padma, 1936), Putul Nacher Itikatha (The Puppet's Tale, 1936), Jiboner Jotilota (Complexities of Life, 1936), Ahimsa (Non-violence, 1941), Dhorabandha Jiban (Quotidian Life, 1941), Chatushkone (The Quadrilateral, 1942), Protibimbo (The Reflection, 1943), Darpan (The Mirror, 1945)
    •  The main theme of his stories and novels was the life of village people. His portrayal of characters in his novels and short stories were brilliant. 
    • He joined the Communist Party of India in 1944 and became an active Marxist.
    • From his early life he suffered from epilepsy. In 1956 he went to coma and died on 3rd December.

    Quick information about Manik Bandopadhyay

    Name: Prabodh Kumar Bandhopaddhay
    D.O.B 19 May 1908
    AKA: Manik Bandopadhyay
    Family: Father: Harihar Bandyopadhyay
    Mother: Neeroda Devi
    Wife: Kamala Devi
    Education: Midnapore Zilla School, Welleslyvan Mission College, Presidency College (Incomplete)
     Known as:  Writer
    Death  3 December 1956 

    Timeline of Manik Bandopadhyay

    1908 Manik Bandhopadhay was born
    1926 Passed the Entrance Examination from Midnapore Zilla School, Got admitted in Welleslyan Mission College at Bankura
    1928 Passed the Intermediate in Science, His first story Atashimami (Aunt Atashi)was published in the magazine Bichitra
    1934 He worked as editor of Nabarun Magazine
    1935 His novel Diba-Ratrir Kabya was published
    1936 His novels Padma Nadir Majhi and Putul Nacher Itikotha got published.
    1937 Started work as assistant editor of literary magazine Bangasree
    1938 Became Headmaster of Mymensingh Teachers Training School
    1939 Started a printing and publishing house.
    1941 His one of the famous novel Shahartali was published
    1944 He joined the Communist Party of India
    1948 His novel Chatushkone was published
    1956 He died at the age of 48

    Buddhist Councils: general knowlede, facts, history, gk

    In the history of Buddhism six Buddhist councils were convened. These councils were held under the patronage of different rulers and presided by different monks. The agenda of these councils were to preserve and spread Buddhism.

    List of Different Buddhist Councils

    Buddhist Councils Description
    First Buddhist Council Time: 400 BC
    Location: Sattapanni caves Rajgriha
    Patronage: King Ajatashatru
    Presided by: Monk Mahakasyapa
    Agenda: To preserve the sayings of Buddha and the monastic discipline or rules.
    Facts: It was held right after the death of Buddha. In this council Suttas were recited by Ananda, and the Vinaya was recited by Upali. Abhidhamma Pitaka was also recited.
    Second Buddhist Council Time: 383 BC
    Location: Vaishali
    Patronage: Kalasoka
    Presided by: Sabakami
    Agenda: To settle the disputes of different subgroups. Some subgroup (Mahasangikas) were in favor of relaxed monastic rules.
    Facts: Many people regard this council as historical. The council rejected the Mahasangikas.
    Third Buddhist Council Time: 250 BC
    Location: Patliputra
    Patronage: Ashoka
    Presided by: Moggaliputta Tissa
    Agenda: To analyze the different schools of Buddhism and to purify them.
    Facts: Ashoka sent many groups to different parts of countries to spread the Buddhism.
    Fourth Buddhist Council Time: 78 AD
    Location: Kashmir
    Patronage: Kanishka
    Presided by: Vasumitra & Asvaghosha
    Agenda: To preserve and remedy of different conflict
    Facts: From this council division of Buddhism occurred into Hinayana & Mahayana. Many people has doubt on authenticity of this council.
    Fifth Buddhist Council Time: 1871
    Location: Myanmar
    Patronage: King Mindon
    Presided by: Jagarabhivamsa, Narindabhidhaja, and Sumangalasami
    Agenda: To recite all the Buddhist teaching and examine them in minute details
    Facts: This council is generally not recognized outside of Myanmar
    Sixth Buddhist Council Time: 1954
    Location: Kaba Aye in Yangon, Burma
    Patronage: prime Minister U. Nu
    Presided by: Mahasi Sayadaw and Bhadanta Vicittasarabhivamsa. Beside them, many monks and scholars joined this council.
    Agenda: To affirm and preserve the genuine Dhamma and Vinaya
    Facts: For this council, a special Maha Passana Guha was constructed which was similar to the guha where the first Buddhist council was constructed.

    Chola Dynasty: history, facts, information

    Chola Dynasty was one of the most powerful dynasties of south India. They ruled south India for a long time and united the whole south India.

    • The main area they ruled was the valley of the Kaveri River. In the peak of their time, the empire was extedded to the whole south india, sri lanka, maldives, Malaysia, Indonesia and to ganges in the east.
    • The source of information of chola dynasty are few. The main source of the information are the tamil literatures and different inscriptions- Sangam literature; Mahavamsa - a Buddhist text; Pillars of Ashoka; 
    • Chola dynasty is generally divided into four periods - Early Cholas, The interregnum, Medieval Cholas, Later Cholas. 
    • The rivers Kaveri  and Ponni had  very important place in their dynasty. Adiperukku festival was celebrated each year during the floods of rivers. Kaveripoompattinam and Nagappattinam were two famous ports. They were the center of trade and commerce.
    • For better ruling, the empire was divided into several provinces called Mandalams. They were also subdivided into Valanadus. Valanadus were further divided into Kottams. Kottams consists number of villages. Different authorities - ur, nadu, sabha, nagaram were there to collect tax and to maintain the accounts.
    •  They had a strong military. The army included war elephants, cavalry, navy. Elephants were used heavily in the land battles. They also had a very strong navy. It was one of the strongest navy of Asia at that time. Navy helped in the conquest of the Ceylon, Srivijaya.
    • Agriculture was the main profession of the people of Chola Dynasty. Silk Weaving was also a respectable job. Kanchipuram became a center of silk Weaving. Silk was exported in large quantity. Beside silk, Wootz steel, spices were also exported. They had a very high reputation in foreign trade. China and south-east Asia were the main foreign trade location. 
    • There were different guilds, community and caste in the chola period. Some of them are- Vellalar community (Courtiers, army officials), Ulavar community (associated with agriculture), Kaikolar community (Merchants, Weavers ).
    • For agriculture, many canals and large water tanks were created - Uyyakondan canal, Rajendran vaykkal, Sembian Mahadegvi vaykkal. Solagangam tank was recognized as liquid pillar of victory.
    • Chola Dynasty had enriched the Tamil literature, art and architecture like no other dynasties. The temples build during this dynasty are one of the finest art. The temple of Gangaikondacholisvaram and the Airavatesvara Temple at Darasuram were declared World Heritage Sites by the UNESCO. The sculptures and bronzes were also remarkable- Nataraja the Divine Dancer is one of the finest art.
    • Tamil literature flourished greatly during this dynasty. Some of the masterpieces were- Ottakuttan's Kulothunga Cholan Ula, Kamban's Kambaramayanam, Jayamkondar's Kalingattuparani etc. Nannul a work on Tamil grammer during the Chola dynasty is still relevant.
    •  With the rise of Pandyan Dynasty the Chola dynasty started to decline and later it became the reason of its downfall.