Interesting facts and information about the Election Commission of India

Election Commission of India is a constitutionally established authority which is responsible for conducting elections in India.
  • Election commission is a permanent and independent body. It also conducts elections of State Legislatures, President and Vice President.
  • Election Commission is controlled by chief election commissioner and two other election commissioners.
  • President of India appoints the chief election commissioner for a term of six years or up to the age 65 of election commissioner, whichever is earlier. Other two commissioners are appointed by the president and chief election commissioner.
  •  In the beginning there was only the chief commissioner in the election commission. On 16 October, 1989 two additional commissioners were appointed for the first time to reduce the work load of chief election commissioner. Election commission became permanently multi member body after the constitution amendment act,1993.
  • The first election commissioner was Sukumar Sen. Current election commissioner is Achal Kumar Jyoti.
  • The chief election commissioner can be dismissed from his position only through impeachment of parliament. Other two commissioners can be removed by the the president through the recommendation of chief election commissioner.
  • With the improvement of technologies, election commission introduced EVM (electronic voting machine ) to improve election procedures. It was first tried in 1982  in Kerala for legislative assembly elections in limited numbers.

Some facts about EVM

  • EVMs are made of two units – Control unit and Ballot unit. Control unit belongs to polling officer who validates the voter’s identity and ballot unit belongs to voter in secret compartment to cast his vote. Once the polling officer validates the identity, then voter can cast his vote.
  • A EVM can store maximum 3840 votes.
  • EVM’s ballot unit can have 16 candidates. For more candidates, two or more ballot units (Up to 4) are joined. So, EVM’s can be used for maximum 64 candidates
  • EVM does not require external power. It runs by the 6V alkaline battery. Which makes EVM useful in most disconnected constituency also.
  • It is manufactured by BEL, Bangalore and ECI, Hyderabad
NOTA (None of the Above):
This option is provided to voter from 2013. If the voter does not like any of the candidates then he can use NOTA option. This option is based on the principle that “consent requires the ability to withhold consent in an election”. Still now the votes castes against NOTA are counted as invalid. But it is useful to increase voting percentage and thus helps to reduce bogus votes.

Functions of election commission

  • The main function of election commission is to conduct a fair election.
  • Election commission is responsible for declaring different important dates for election, vote counting, declaration of result.Every party needs to be recognized by election commission. They needs to register their electoral symbol..
  • Election commission examines the expenses of the candidates for the election.
  • Before every election, election commission declares a code of conduct to be followed by the parties. 
  • They prepare and revises the voter list and also issues voter’s identity card

Interesting facts and information about Lok Sabha

Lok Sabha is a part of Parliament. It is also called the house of people or the lower house in the parliament.
  • There are 545 members in the Lok Sabha. Out of which 543 members are directly elected from the States (523) and union territories (20). Other two members are selected by Indian president from the Anglo-Indian community. Maximum number of members can be elected for Lok Sabha is 552. Among this 530 from states, 20 from Union Territory and two from Anglo Indian Community
  • No of Members selected from States 523
    No of members selected from Union Territories 20
    No of seats reserved for Scheduled Casts(SC) 84
    No of seats reserved for Schuduled Tribes (ST) 47
    No of seats for Anglo Indian community 2
    Currently the strength of Lok Sabha 545
    Maximum seats of Lok Sabha 552(550 from states and UT & 2 from Anglo Indian community)
  • A person is eligible for the seat of Lok Sabha only if -
  • a) He/she is a citizen of India
    b) His/her age would be greater than 25 years
    c) He/she must not be of unsound mind
    d) He/she must be an elector from any parliamentary constituency
    f) He/she must not hold any profitable post in any government offices.
  • To run the Lok Sabha properly, a speaker and a deputy speaker is elected from the members of Lok Sabha on the first meeting after the election.
  • The members of Lok Sabha are elected for the term of five years. Though in case of emergency this can be extended for a year.
  • The first Lok Sabha was held on 17 April, 1952. Indian Congress won the first election by 75.99% of votes. Jawaharlal Nehru was the first Prime Minister.
  • The quorum (Minimum number of members needed to carry on the meeting of Lok Sabha) of Lok Sabha is 1/10th of its total members. 
  • In a year, Lok Sabha has three sessions (house meeting to conduct business).
  • Session Duration
    Budget Session February to May
    Monsoon Session July to September
    Winter Session November to December
  • "Lok sabha tv" is the lok Sabha's own Tv channel which is headquartered in the premises of parliament.  

Powers of Lok Sabha

  • Any bill (Except Money Bill) can be passed if it is passed in both the houses
  • It has the same power as Rajya Sabha in case of impeachment of president and the judges of supreme court.
  • It has equal power as Rajya Sabha in passing any bill for constitutional amendment.
  • Lok Sabha members has the power to elect the president, vice president.

 Special Powers of Lok Sabha

    1) Money bills can only be passed in Lok Sabha. After a bill is passed in Lok Sabha, it is sent to Rajya Sabha for any recommendations. Rajya Sabha is bound to provide recommendations within 14 days otherwise the bill gets passed automatically. It is up to Lok Sabha to consider or not to consider the recommendations of Rajya Sabha.
    2) Motion of no confidence can only be introduced in Lok Sabha. If it is passed then the prime minister and other council of ministers need to resign from their post.

    Number of Lok Sabha Constituency of Different States and Union Territories

    State/Union Territory Number of Parliamentary seats
    Andhra Pradesh 25
    Arunachal Pradesh 2
    Assam 14
    Bihar 40
    Chhattisgarh 11
    Goa 2
    Gujarat 26
    Haryana 10
    Himachal Pradesh 4
    Jammu and Kashmir 6
    Jharkhand 14
    Karnataka 28
    Kerala 20
    Madhya Pradesh 29
    Maharashtra 48
    Manipur 2
    Meghalaya 2
    Mizoram 1
    Nagaland 1
    Odisha 21
    Punjab 13
    Rajasthan 25
    Sikkim 1
    Tamil Nadu 39
    Telangana 17
    Tripura 2
    Uttar Pradesh 80
    Uttarakhand 5
    West Bengal 42
    Andaman and Nicobar Islands 1
    Chandigarh 1
    Dadra and Nagar Haveli 1
    Daman and Diu 1
    Lakshadweep 1
    NCT of Delhi 7
    Puducherry 1

    Important facts and information about Rajya Sabha

    Rajya Sabha or Council of States is an Indian constitutional body. It is also called the upper house of the parliament.
    Rajya Sabha
    Rajya Sabha
    • Rajya Sabha has 250 members. Among these 250 members, 238 are representatives of States and union territories. Other 12 members are selected by Indian president according to their achievement in science, arts, literature. Currently Rajya Sabha has only 245 members. 233 elected and 12 nominated.
    • The Hindi name “Rajya Sabha” of Council of States was adopted on 23 August 1954.
    • A person is eligible as a member of Rajya Sabha only if a) he/she ïs a citizen of India b) his/her age is greater than 30 years c) he/she must be an elector from the state,for which he/she is representing.
    • Vice president of India acts as the chairman of Rajya Sabha. In his absence deputy chairman take care the job of chairman of Rajya Sabha. The person for the post of deputy chairman is elected from the members of Rajya Sabha.
    • The tenure of the member of Rajya Sabha is six years. After every two years, one third of the total members of Rajya Sabha retires.
    • The first sitting in Rajya Sabha held on 13 may,1952. Unlike the lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha is not dissolved.
    • The Quorum (Minimum number of members to be present to make the meeting of Rajya Sabha valid) of Rajya Sabha is one tenth of total members of Rajya Sabha. 
    • The members of Rajya Sabha are elected by the single transferable vote system. The members of state Legislative assembly selects a predefined number of members for the Rajya Sabha. The number of members one state Legislative Assembly can elect is depended on the population of that state (proportional representation).

    Functions of Rajya Sabha

    • Any bill (except the money bills) needs to be approved by Rajya Sabha to get passed. If the bill gets stuck for more than six months then President calls for a joint session of both the houses to resolve the deadlock.
    • Money Bill:
      Rajya Sabha does not have any power to amend or reject the Money bill. Lok Sabha can only introduce Money bill and once it is approved my Lok Sabha, it is passed to Rajya Sabha for its approval. If Rajya Sabha fails to pass it within 14 days then the bill gets passed without the approval of Rajya Sabha. Also, Lok Sabha does not need to consider the amendments proposed my Rajya Sabha. Lok Sabha can reject all the proposals and pass it.
    • It has the same power as Lok Sabha, for passing any bill for constitutional amendment.
    • The members of Rajya Sabha have the electoral power for selection of President, Vice President. Together with the members of Lok Sabha and all the State Legislative Assemblies they elect the President and Vice President.
    • It has power in the impeachment procedure of president and judges of supreme court and high court.

       Special Powers of Rajya Sabha

    1) Rajya Sabha has the power to make a state list subject into National Importance. If two third majority of the members of Rajya Sabha passes a resolution to support it.
    2) Rajya Sabha can also create or abolish an All India Service. If majority of members (2/3 of Total Members) supports it.

    Number of members different states can elect for Rajya Sabha

    Name of state and union territory No. of Seats
    Andhra Pradesh 11
    Arunachal Pradesh 1
    Assam 7
    Bihar 16
    Chhattisgarh 5
    Goa 1
    Gujarat 11
    Haryana 5
    Himachal Pradesh 3
    Jammu & Kashmir 4
    Jharkhand 6
    Karnataka 12
    Kerala 9
    Madhya Pradesh 11
    Maharashtra 19
    Manipur 1
    Meghalaya 1
    Mizoram 1
    Nagaland 1
    National Capital Territory (Delhi) 3
    Nominated 12
    Odisha 10
    Puducherry 1
    Punjab 7
    Rajasthan 10
    Sikkim 1
    Tamil Nadu 18
    Telangana 7
    Tripura 1
    Uttar Pradesh 31
    Uttarakhand 3
    West Bengal 16
    Total 245

    Interesting facts and information about Hinduism



    Hinduism is one of the most ancient religions and considered to be one of the four major religions in the world. Originating from India (Asia) and the Vedic culture, Hinduism is now spread in most parts of the world. There are over 1.08 billion of Hindus living around the globe today. Hinduism, also referred to as Sanatan Dharma by certain scholars, is polytheistic by nature.
    Swastika

    • A majority of Hindus are found currently living in India, Nepal, Mauritius, the Caribbean, and Bali in Indonesia. India is dominated by an 80% majority of Hindus.
    • The name'Hindu' is taken from the Sanskrit name "Sindhu" of the Indus river given to it by the Aryans in the second millennium BCE.
    • A red dot that is placed on the forehead is a symbol of being a Hindu. It is placed on the forehead before any worshipping or prayers begin. Hindu women use this a beauty symbol and in their context, it is called a Bindi. The red dot implies the divine sight and the spiritual evolution.
    • The religion was founded by no single founder. It is understood from the ancient texts, The Vedas, Puranas, and the Upanishads. Also, epics such as Ramayana and Mahabharata are considered of high importance. A portion of Mahabharata evolved as a separate book of teachings by Lord Sri Krishna, "The BhagvadGita".
    • The religion is polytheistic by nature, i.e. it involves worshipping many gods and goddesses. However, the basic premise is the existence of one supreme power (Brahma) that is channelized in the many gods and goddesses.
    • Buddism, Jainism and Sikhism have all evolved from Hinduism at different times due to different callings from society and times.
    • Karma Theory is an important theory of Hinduism. Reincarnation is believed to be based on karma. They say the cycle of birth, that includes birth, death, and rebirth is based on the Karma (actions) of a human
    • Important symbols of Hinduism are Swastika, Om, lotus, trisula.
    • Hindus respect the cow animal. It is regarded as a mother. Hindus do not eat cow or buffalo flesh and eating such a thing is considered a sin. On the contrary, whatever is naturally created/secreted by cow, such as, cow milk, ghee, even cow urine and dung is considered pure and sacred.
    • The knowledge of Hinduism is preserved in the ancient texts called the Vedas - Rig Veda, Sam Veda, Yajur Veda and Atharva Veda.
    • Yoga is one of the biggest contributions of Hinduism to the whole world. It is a set of techniques of training the mind, body, and soul for the attainment of superior well-being and longevity, spirituality and as well mental balance.
    • Casteism was a form of a division of the society on the basis of the occupation and would be applicable on generations to follow. This practice led to discrimination and exploitation of the lowest class. It has been done away with in modern India post Independence. Presently it is against law to discriminate against or look down up insultingly or abuse on the basis of caste, gender or even region.

    Shah Jahan: facts, history, biography

    Shah Jahan was the fifth Mughal Emperor. His full name was Mirza Shahabuddin Baig Muhammad Khan Shah Jahan. He is famous for building the Taj Mahal. He ruled form 1628 to 1658.

    Shahjahan
    • He was the son of the Mughal emperor Jahangir. His mother was Bilquis Makani. His grandfather Akbar gave him the name "Khurram". He was trained under the sight of Akbar and his grandmother Ruqaiya.
    • He had a strained relationship with his step mother Nur Jahan. Nur Jahan was planning and supporting his son in law Shahryar for the throne. His father Jahangir was very much depended on Nur Jahan. Despite that, after the death of Jahangir, Shah Jahan succeeded the Throne. And imprisoned his stepmother Nur Jahan, executed his rivals.
    • Under his patronage, Mughal empire was extended very much. He conquered the Kandahar, defeated the Rajputs of Baglana, Mewar and Bundelkhand.
    • During his reign, the state was overall peaceful and the revenue was increased. The justice was followed without any discrimination.
    • He had many marriages. But he was in love with his wife Mumtaz Mahal. The stories of their love affairs are still discussed. After the death of Mumtaz Mahal, he builds the tomb Taj Mahal.
    • Shah Jahan’s reign is regarded as Golden Period for art and architecture. He built several monuments and forts. Some of architecture built during his reign were- Red Fort, Jama Masjid, Moti Masjid or Pearl Mosque, Takht-e-Taus, Shalimar Gardens.
    • His end of life was not that good. When he fell seek, his son Aurangzeb took over the throne and house poisoned him in the fort of Agra. He died in the imprisonment in 1666.

    Indian State Kerala: facts, information

    Kerala is an Indian state which is in the southern part of India. Indian states Tamilnadu and Karnataka surrounds it. It is also known as God's Own Country, Spice Garden of India, Land of Coconuts.

    Kerala
    Kerala
    • Area wise it is the 22nd largest state of India and 13th largest state per the population. Malayalam is the main language spoken by the people of Kerala. It was formed on 1 November 1956.
    • Thiruvananthapuram is the capital of Kerala. It has 14 districts- Kasaragod, Kannur, Wayanad, Kozhikode, Palakkad, Thrissur, Ernakulam, Idukki, Malappuram Kottayam, Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam, Alappuzha, Pathanamthitta.
    • Kerala has the highest literacy rate in India. It was the first state which became fully literate state in 1991. Besides having highest literacy rate, it also has highest HDI (Human Development Index) and lowest population growth rate.
    • Kerala is the highest rubber and black pepper producer of India. Other agricultural products are – Different Spices, Coconut, Cashew, Tea, Coffee.
    • Anamudi is the highest mountain peak of Kerala. Vembanad is the largest lake of Kerala and Periyar is the longest river.
    • Kerala Backwaters is very famous among the tourists. It is a network of interconnected canals, rivers, lakes, and brackish lagoons. It is a home of many unique sea animals. Different trees and plants surrounding the waterbody creates wonderful atmosphere for the tourists. Different type of houseboats float around this backwaters.
    • It is the first Indian state which receives rains during the Monsoon. About 120-150 days per year is rainy in Kerala.
    • Kerala is most biodiverse state of India. Around 25% of India's 15,000 plant species are in Kerala. Kerala is famous for Indian elephants. Beside Indian Elephants, Indian leopard, Nilgiri tahr, Bengal Tiger are also found.
    • Technopark of Thiruvananthapuram is the first technology park of India. It is one of the largest IT park of India.
    • Most of the Keralite are emigrants working in foreign countries, mainly in Arab.
    • Kerala is one of the most attractive tourist destination. It has beaches like Kovalam, Varkala, Vizhinjam, Hill stations like Munnar, Nelliyampathy, Wildlife Sancturies like Parambikulam national park, Silent valley, Backwaters like Alapuzha, Kollam. That’s why it is also called “God’s own Country”.

    Interesting facts and information about Taj Mahal

    Taj Mahal is a beautiful monument made of white Marble which is situated at Agra, India. It is one of the Wonders of World.

    Taj Mahal
    Taj Mahal
    • Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan built it. After the death of his wife Mumtaz Mahal, he built this tomb.
    • The construction was started in 1632 and the work completed around 1653.
    • This massive project took a huge man power (around 20,000) to build. People from different countries were employed to build this beautiful piece of art. Ustad-Ahmad Lahori was the chief architect.
    • It was declared as the World Heritage site by UNESCO in 1983.
    • Taj Mahal attracts huge number of tourists. About 8 million tourists visits it every year.
    • Due to rise in pollution, the white marble has started to turn into yellow. Which has generated a lot of tension among the people. Indian Government has setup a special zone (Taj Trapezium Zone (TTZ)) around the Taj Mahal to cope with it.
    • The literal meaning of Taj Mahal is “The Crown of Palaces”.
    • The Taj Mahal was built using the white marbles. Besides that, different type of stones and materials were used from different part of the world for the construction. About 28 different precious stones were used. Taj Mahal is only one of the few monuments which has a symmetrical structure.

    Interesting facts and information about Ramayana

    Ramayana is an epic poem of ancient India. There are mainly two epic poems of ancient India. One is Ramayana and another is Mahabharata. Both have a very high importance in Hinduism.

    Ramayana
    • Rishi Valmiki was the author of Ramayana.
    • Ramayana is one of the largest literature. It has 24,000 verses, divided into seven Kandas (books) and about 500 sargas (chapters). The Seven Kandas are – Bala kanda, Ayodhya kanda, Aranya kanda, Kishkindha kanda, Sundara kanda, Yuddha kanda, Uttara kanda.
    • There is no clarity on when it was written. Though it is believed that it was written around 4th Century BCE. Sometimes it is reffered as Adi Kavya (adi =first; kavya = poem). It is considered that Ramayana was existed before the Mahabharata.
    • The literal meaning of Ramayana is “Rama’s Journey”. Rama is the central character of Ramayana. Rama is portrayed as an ideal person in the epic.
    • Many authors had written different versions of Ramayana in different languages. Some of them are - Kamban's Ramavataram in Tamil, Krittibas Ojha's Krittivasi Ramayan (also known as Shri Rama Panchali) in Bengali, Tulsidas' Ramcharitamanas in Awadhi, Sant Eknath's Bhavarth Ramayan in Marathi, Gona Budda Reddy's Ramayanam in Telugu.
    • Ramayana has a great impact on Indian art and culture. Many characters and incidents depicted in Ramayana can be found on different Indian Temples and Art. Rama is worshiped as incarnation of God Vishnu. Different literatures still use characters of Ramayana. Many movies and TV series are made on Ramayana.
    • Different characters described in the Ramayana are believed as incarnation of different gods. Like- Rama as incarnation of Vishnu, Sita as incarnation of Laxmi, Laxman as incarnation of Shesha Naga, Hanuman as incarnation of Shiva.

    Raj Kapoor: facts, biography, information

    Raj Kapoor was a famous Indian film actor, director and producer. He is famous for his films like Mera naam Joker, Awara, Sangam. He is also called as “Showman of indian Cinema”.

    Nargis, Raj Kapoor, Dilip Kumar
    • He was born on 14 December 1924 in Peshawar, India (Currently in Pakistan).
    • His father was Prithviraj Kapoor and his mother was Ramsarni Devi Kapoor. Prithviraj Kapoor and Ramsarni Devi Kapoor had six children. Raj Kapoor was the eldest. His brother Shashi Kapoor and the late Shammi Kapoor are also actor. His father was also an actor. He married to Krishna Malhotra and had five children.
    • He completed his education from Colonel Brown Cambridge School, Dehradun and St Xavier's Collegiate School.
    • He appeared for the first time in the film Inquilab. He was only 10 years old at that time. His first successful film as a lead actor was Neel Kamal opposite Madhubala.
    • In the year 1924, he established the R K films and directed the film Aag. He was only 24 at that time. That made him the youngest film director at that time.
    • His some of the famous films as director and actor were - Awaara, Shri 420,Sangam, Jagte Raho and Jis Desh Men Ganga Behti Hai.
    • In 1970 he made the fim Mera Naam Joker. It was his ambitious project and took lot of effort and time. But the film was a disaster and he suffered from financial crisis. Later the film turned into a classic and critics mentioned it as one of the best film directed by Raj Kapoor.
    • He also launched his sons Randhir Kapoor and Rishi Kapoor in his films Kal Aaj Aur Kal and Bobby.
    • He is also called as "Charlie Chaplin of Indian cinema” for portraying tramp like character in his films.
    • He was honoured with many awards. He won Dadasaheb Phalke Award in 1987. He was also bestowed with Padma Bhushan. He won three National Awards in his life.
    • He died on 2 June 1988 due to asthma. At that time, he was working on the film Henna. Which was later completed by his sons and released in 1991.

    Interesting facts and information about Mahabharata

    Mahabharata is one of the epic of ancient literature. This Sanskrit epic describes the war of Kurukshetra between the Kaurava and the Pandava princes. Mahabharata is the source of inspiration for many movies and serials.

    mahabharata
    Mahabharata
    • The Sage Vyasa authored the Mahabharata. He is also known as Krishna Dvaipāyana, Veda Vyāsa. Many people suggest that Vyasa was not a person but a group of sages having great knowledge of Vedas.
    • Mahabharata is the longest text of the world. It consists about 100,000 shlokas and 1.8 million words. The other Indian epic Ramayana, is 4 times smaller than Mahabharata.
    • “Mahabharata” literally means the Great story of Bharata. It is believed that the Mahabharata was written in the early Vedic Period.
    • Mahabharata was first recited by sage Vaisampayana, a disciple of Vyasa. He recited it to the king Janamejaya, the great grandson of Arjuna.
    • Among the different stories and different subsections of Mahabharata, one of the main event was the conversation of Arjuna and Krishna at the battlefield. This conversation created one of the most sacred Hindu religious scripture – “Bhagavad Gita”.
    • It is said that when Vyasa conceived the idea of Mahabharata. He thought that it will not be possible for him to complete it in his lifetime. So, he asked the help of Brahma and finally God Ganesha helped vyasa to write it.
    • It has 18 parvas- Adi, Sabha, Van, Udyog, Virat, Bhisma, Dhron, Kama, Shalya, Stri, Shasti, Anushashan, Ashwamedhie, Ashramvasik, and Shanti. Mahaprasthanic and Swargarohan.
    • Sometimes it is also called as fifth Veda due to vast inner context that it carries.
    • The Kurukshetra war was fought for 18 days. Kurukshetra is in Haryana where this war was fought.
    • Mahabharata has thousands of characters. Each character has a special role in the tale. Among them some of the interesting characters are- Shakuni, Krishna, Ekalavya, Karna, Bhisma, Arjun, Kunti, Draupadi, Ashwatthama, Yuyutsu, Bhima, Duryodhana, Gandhari…..any many more…

    Intersting facts and information about Delhi

    Delhi is the national capital territory of India. Haryana and Uttar Pradesh surrounds it. Delhi is also center of Indian politics and famously called as City of Rallies.

    India Gate
    • Delhi is the most expansive city of India and second most populous city (First is Mumbai) of India.
    • In 1991, it was declared as the National Capital Territory of India by The Constitution (Sixty-Ninth Amendment) Act, 1991. Under this act, the Central Government and Delhi Government both govern it.
    • Delhi has a very rich history. It was governed by Pandavas to Mughals. It served as the capital of many empires specially during Medieval period.
    • Delhi is one of the most polluted city of World. The air pollution is very high in the core city. It was declared most polluted city of world in 2014 by WHO.
    • Delhi is the home of many heritage sites and monuments which attracts a lot of tourists. Red Fort, Qutab Minar and Humayun's Tomb are the World Heritage sites of Delhi. Other monuments and places are India Gate, Lotus Temple, Purana Qila, Rajghat,
    • Delhi is famous for different foods. It is the place from where Mughlai cuisine originated. It is famous for Kebab, biryani, tandoori, samosa, chole bhature, chole kulche, jalebi. Delhi is also famous for its street foods. Gali Paranthe Wali of Chadni Chowk is famous among the foodies.
    • Azadpur market of Delhi is the largest fruit market of Asia. Khari Baoli Market is the largest Spice market of India.
    • Delhi used to be a walled city which had 14 gates. Among the gates five are still there- Ajmeri Gate, Kashmiri Gate, Lahori Gate, Delhi Gate and Turkman Gate.
    • The major bus services of Delhi are operated by DTC (Delhi Transport Corporation). It is the largest CNG-powered bus service operator in the world.
    • The Ridge of Delhi is famous for bird lovers. It makes Delhi the second most bird-rich capital city.

    Indian City Chennai : facts, information

    Chennai is the capital of Indian state Tamilnadu. It is one of the best cities to live in India. It is one of the best educational, economic center of India.

    Chennai
    Chennai
    • Chennai is the fourth largest city of India (Area wise) and sixth largest city (Population wise).
    • Chennai was formally known as Madras. In 1996, the name was changed from Madras to Chennai.
    • It is famously called as “Detroit of India”. As most of the automobile industry is located here. About one third automobile industry of the country is here.
    • The city lies on the thermal equator which makes it one of the hottest city of world. In May and June, the temperature rises to 40-degree C. It is generally referred as Agni Nakshatram ("fire star") or Kathiri Veyyil.
    • World’s second oldest Municipal Corporation -Greater Chennai Corporation governs Chennai. It was established in 1688.
    • It has the largest number of Heritage buildings in India after Kolkata. Some of them are - Chennai Central, Chennai Egmore, Madras High Court, Ripon Building, Chepauk Palace, College of Engineering, National Art Gallery.
    • It is also known for its art, dance, and culture. It is one of the important center of oldest dance form Bharata Natyam.
    • World’s second largest beach - Marina Beach is in Chennai.
    • It is one of the most attractive tourist destination. It is one of the most favored spot for the foreign tourists in India. That’s why it is sometimes referred as Gateway of South India. Some of the famous places are – Mahabalipuram (UNESCO World Heritage site), Madras Crocodile Bank Trust, Mariana Beach, Elliots Beach, Arignar Anna Zoological Park (One of the largest zoological park of Asia).
    • Chennai is the center of major Hospitals and Medical Facilities. It is sometimes referred as India’s health capital.

    Interesting facts and information about Bollywood

    Bollywood generally refers to Indian Film Industry. But in more accurate form it is the Hindi film industry based in Mumbai. Bollywood is the combination of two words “Bombay” (Mumbai was formally known as Bombay) and “Hollywood”.

    Bollywood
    • Bollywood is one of the largest film producers in the world. Around 200-300 films are produced each year. Which earns around 3000-4000 crores each year.
    • The first film made in India was the Raja Harishchandra (1913). It was a silent movie. The film was made by Dadasaheb Phalke. He is also called the Father of Indian Cinema. The first talkie of Indian Cinema was Alam Ara (1931).
    • The era 1940-1960 is regarded as the Golden era of Bollywood. In this period several critically hit films were made. Some them are- Awaara (1951), Aan (1952), Pyaasa (1957), Mother India (1957), Madhumati (1958), Kaagaz Ke Phool (1959).
    • The first color film of India was Kisan Kanya. It was made in 1937. But the trend of color cinema started during the 1950.
    • Bollywood movies are famous for its songs and dances. They are part of Indian films from the beginning of Talkies. The first Talkie Alam Ara had seven songs.
    • Dadasaheb Phalke award is the highest award of Indian Film Industry. Other prestigious awards are National Awards, Film fare awards. Dadasaheb phalke award was first awarded to Devika Rani in 1969.
    • Dilwale Dulhaniya Le Jayenge is the longest running film of the world. It ran for about 1000 weeks.
    • The longest movie of Bollywood is “Gangs of Wasseypur”. It was realased as single film in cannes film festival. It is about 319 minutes long.
    • Lagaan was the first film which was released in China.
    • First Indian cinema to get Palme d'Or at Cannes Film Festival was Neecha Nagar. It was released in 1946. Mother India was the first Indian movie which got Oscar Nomination for Best Foreign Language Film.

    Interesting facts and information about Bhagavad Gita

    Bhagavad Gita is one of the most sacred Hindu religious scripture. Many famous personalities have highly praised the Gita- Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, Herman Hesse, Abdul Kalam, Albert Einstein and many other people.

    "The Bhagavad-Gita is a true scripture of the human race a living creation rather than a book, with a new message for every age and a new meaning for every civilization." ~ Rishi Aurobindo
    Arjuna and Krishna at Kurukshetra
    • Gita is a part of Mahabharata. It is part of Bhishma Parva of Mahabharata (Chapters 25 to 42). Mahabharata is a epic scripture of Hinduism.
    • Bhagavad Gita consists 18 Chapters and it has 700 verses. It is written in Sanskrit.
    • It is a conversation between Arjuna and Krishna at the battlefield of Kurukshetra. In the battlefield when Arjuna was unable to decide what is right and what is wrong, he asked several questions to Krishna, Gita captures this questions of Arjuna and Krishna’s answers to those questions.
    • The literal meaning of Gita is “Song of God”.
    • The main theme of Gita is Dharma (Holy Duty). It descripes the different Yoga- Bhakti, Karma, Jnana; and Moksha or liberation.
    • Several commentaries have been written on Gita. Such as Śaṅkara, Rāmānuja, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, Bhāskara, Madhva. These commentaries vary from each other in views and meaning.
    • Charles Wilkins translated the Gita in English for the first time in 1785. Later it was also translated into different European languages.
    • It is believed that three other person besides Arjuna listened the Gita directly from Krishna. They were Sanjay, Hanuman, Barbarik son of Ghatotkach.

    Manik Bandopadhyay: facts, biography, information

    Manik Bandopadhyay was a bengali novel writer. He is famous for his novels and short stories that he wrote in his short life of 48 years.
    • He was born on 19 May 1908 in Dumka of Bihar. His original name was Prabodh Kumar Bandhopaddhay.
    • His parents were Harihar Bandopadhyay and Niroda Devi. They had fourteen children. Harihar Bandopadhyay was a government officer and had to visit a lot of place. This gave Manik a chance to connect with many people from his early life. He married to Kamala Devi and had 4 children.
    • He was a brilliant student. He passed the entrance examination in 1926 from Midnapore Zilla School. He secured first division in this examination. He joined the Welleslyvan Mission College at Bankura. In 1928 he passed his I.Sc. with first division. Later he joined the Presidency College, Calcutta. But he was not able to complete it due to financial problem.
    • Manik Bandopadhyay suffered from poverty almost throughout of his life. He started as Headmaster of Mymensingh Teachers Training School. But he switched many jobs in his career. Throughout of his life, his main source of income was writing.
    • His writing career started with the short story Atashimami. This was published in the magazine Bichitra. This story earned him a great respect in literary society. Throughout his life, he had published about 177 short stories. Some of them are- Atashi Mami (1935), Pragoitihashik (English: Pre-historic, 1937), Mihi O Mota Kahini (1938), Sarisrip (Amphibian, 1939), Bou (The Bride, 1940), Shamudrer Swad (The Taste of the Seas, 1943).
    • His some of novels are- Janani (Mother, 1935), Diba-Ratrir Kabya (Poetry of Days and Nights, 1935), Padma Nadir Majhi (The Boatman of River Padma, 1936), Putul Nacher Itikatha (The Puppet's Tale, 1936), Jiboner Jotilota (Complexities of Life, 1936), Ahimsa (Non-violence, 1941), Dhorabandha Jiban (Quotidian Life, 1941), Chatushkone (The Quadrilateral, 1942), Protibimbo (The Reflection, 1943), Darpan (The Mirror, 1945). He also wrote some poems but he is mostly known for his short stories and novels.
    •  The main theme of his stories and novels was the life of village people. His portrayal of characters in his novels and short stories were brilliant. 
    • He joined the Communist Party of India in 1944 and became an active Marxist.
    • From his early life he suffered from epilepsy. In 1956 he went to coma and died on 3rd December.