The indus valley civilization also known as harappan civilization was the ancient civilization built around the banks of river indus. It is one of the ancient civilization besides mesopotamia and egypt civilization.
- This ancient civilization belonged to the bronze age.It existed for about 1000 years from 2500 BC to 1500 BC.
- It was spread to a large area covering about 1,260,000 km². This civilization extended from Makran coast of Balochistan in the west to Ghaggar-Hakra River valley in the east, From Afghanistan in the northeastern to Daimabad in Maharashtra in the south. It is one of the largest known ancient civilization.
- The people of that time had great engineering skills. They discovered tin,lead,copper etc. Their town planning was also exceptional. They used bricks to build their buildings and they had a very efficient drainage ststem.
- The main profession of the people of indus valley civilization were trading and farming. Besides rice,wheat they also produced cotton,dates in large quantity.
- The cities were the main places for trading.About 1000 cities were found. The popular cities of that time were Mohenjo daro, Harappa, Lothal, Banwali.
- It is found that people of that era worshiped animals and birds. From a seal founded of that era it is revealed that they used to worship Pashupati (lord of cattle).
- There are many theories behind the destruction of this civilization.Many believes that flood, drying up of river, deforestation were the main reasons behind the destruction of this civilization. Some people believe invasion of aryans was the cause of destruction.
Some Major Excavations
|Harappa||R B Dayaram Sahni (1921)|
|Mohenjo Daro||R D Banerjee (1922)|
|Lothal||S R Roa|
|Banwali||R S Bisht|