Manik Bandopadhyay: facts, biography, information

Manik Bandopadhyay was a bengali novel writer. He is famous for his novels and short stories that he wrote in his short life of 48 years.
  • He was born on 19 May 1908 in Dumka of Bihar. His original name was Prabodh Kumar Bandhopaddhay.
  • His parents were Harihar Bandopadhyay and Niroda Devi. They had fourteen children. Harihar Bandopadhyay was a government officer and had to visit a lot of place. This gave Manik a chance to connect with many people from his early life. He married to Kamala Devi and had 4 children.
  • He was a brilliant student. He passed the entrance examination in 1926 from Midnapore Zilla School. He secured first division in this examination. He joined the Welleslyvan Mission College at Bankura. In 1928 he passed his I.Sc. with first division. Later he joined the Presidency College, Calcutta. But he was not able to complete it due to financial problem.
  • Manik Bandopadhyay suffered from poverty almost throughout of his life. He started as Headmaster of Mymensingh Teachers Training School. But he switched many jobs in his career. Throughout of his life, his main source of income was writing.
  • His writing career started with the short story Atashimami. This was published in the magazine Bichitra. This story earned him a great respect in literary society. Throughout his life, he had published about 177 short stories. Some of them are- Atashi Mami (1935), Pragoitihashik (English: Pre-historic, 1937), Mihi O Mota Kahini (1938), Sarisrip (Amphibian, 1939), Bou (The Bride, 1940), Shamudrer Swad (The Taste of the Seas, 1943).
  • His some of novels are- Janani (Mother, 1935), Diba-Ratrir Kabya (Poetry of Days and Nights, 1935), Padma Nadir Majhi (The Boatman of River Padma, 1936), Putul Nacher Itikatha (The Puppet's Tale, 1936), Jiboner Jotilota (Complexities of Life, 1936), Ahimsa (Non-violence, 1941), Dhorabandha Jiban (Quotidian Life, 1941), Chatushkone (The Quadrilateral, 1942), Protibimbo (The Reflection, 1943), Darpan (The Mirror, 1945). He also wrote some poems but he is mostly known for his short stories and novels.
  •  The main theme of his stories and novels was the life of village people. His portrayal of characters in his novels and short stories were brilliant. 
  • He joined the Communist Party of India in 1944 and became an active Marxist.
  • From his early life he suffered from epilepsy. In 1956 he went to coma and died on 3rd December.

Buddhist Councils: general knowlede, facts, history, gk

In the history of Buddhism six Buddhist councils were convened. These councils were held under the patronage of different rulers and presided by different monks. The agenda of these councils were to preserve and spread Buddhism.

List of Different Buddhist Councils

Buddhist Councils Description
First Buddhist Council Time: 400 BC
Location: Sattapanni caves Rajgriha
Patronage: King Ajatashatru
Presided by: Monk Mahakasyapa
Agenda: To preserve the sayings of Buddha and the monastic discipline or rules.
Facts: It was held right after the death of Buddha. In this council Suttas were recited by Ananda, and the Vinaya was recited by Upali. Abhidhamma Pitaka was also recited.
Second Buddhist Council Time: 383 BC
Location: Vaishali
Patronage: Kalasoka
Presided by: Sabakami
Agenda: To settle the disputes of different subgroups. Some subgroup (Mahasangikas) were in favor of relaxed monastic rules.
Facts: Many people regard this council as historical. The council rejected the Mahasangikas.
Third Buddhist Council Time: 250 BC
Location: Patliputra
Patronage: Ashoka
Presided by: Moggaliputta Tissa
Agenda: To analyze the different schools of Buddhism and to purify them.
Facts: Ashoka sent many groups to different parts of countries to spread the Buddhism.
Fourth Buddhist Council Time: 78 AD
Location: Kashmir
Patronage: Kanishka
Presided by: Vasumitra & Asvaghosha
Agenda: To preserve and remedy of different conflict
Facts: From this council division of Buddhism occurred into Hinayana & Mahayana. Many people has doubt on authenticity of this council.
Fifth Buddhist Council Time: 1871
Location: Myanmar
Patronage: King Mindon
Presided by: Jagarabhivamsa, Narindabhidhaja, and Sumangalasami
Agenda: To recite all the Buddhist teaching and examine them in minute details
Facts: This council is generally not recognized outside of Myanmar
Sixth Buddhist Council Time: 1954
Location: Kaba Aye in Yangon, Burma
Patronage: prime Minister U. Nu
Presided by: Mahasi Sayadaw and Bhadanta Vicittasarabhivamsa. Beside them, many monks and scholars joined this council.
Agenda: To affirm and preserve the genuine Dhamma and Vinaya
Facts: For this council, a special Maha Passana Guha was constructed which was similar to the guha where the first Buddhist council was constructed.

Chola Dynasty: history, facts, information

Chola Dynasty was one of the most powerful dynasties of south India. They ruled south India for a long time and united the whole south India.

  • The main area they ruled was the valley of the Kaveri River. In the peak of their time, the empire was extedded to the whole south india, sri lanka, maldives, Malaysia, Indonesia and to ganges in the east.
  • The source of information of chola dynasty are few. The main source of the information are the tamil literatures and different inscriptions- Sangam literature; Mahavamsa - a Buddhist text; Pillars of Ashoka; 
  • Chola dynasty is generally divided into four periods - Early Cholas, The interregnum, Medieval Cholas, Later Cholas. 
  • The rivers Kaveri  and Ponni had  very important place in their dynasty. Adiperukku festival was celebrated each year during the floods of rivers. Kaveripoompattinam and Nagappattinam were two famous ports. They were the center of trade and commerce.
  • For better ruling, the empire was divided into several provinces called Mandalams. They were also subdivided into Valanadus. Valanadus were further divided into Kottams. Kottams consists number of villages. Different authorities - ur, nadu, sabha, nagaram were there to collect tax and to maintain the accounts.
  •  They had a strong military. The army included war elephants, cavalry, navy. Elephants were used heavily in the land battles. They also had a very strong navy. It was one of the strongest navy of Asia at that time. Navy helped in the conquest of the Ceylon, Srivijaya.
  • Agriculture was the main profession of the people of Chola Dynasty. Silk Weaving was also a respectable job. Kanchipuram became a center of silk Weaving. Silk was exported in large quantity. Beside silk, Wootz steel, spices were also exported. They had a very high reputation in foreign trade. China and south-east Asia were the main foreign trade location. 
  • There were different guilds, community and caste in the chola period. Some of them are- Vellalar community (Courtiers, army officials), Ulavar community (associated with agriculture), Kaikolar community (Merchants, Weavers ).
  • For agriculture, many canals and large water tanks were created - Uyyakondan canal, Rajendran vaykkal, Sembian Mahadegvi vaykkal. Solagangam tank was recognized as liquid pillar of victory.
  • Chola Dynasty had enriched the Tamil literature, art and architecture like no other dynasties. The temples build during this dynasty are one of the finest art. The temple of Gangaikondacholisvaram and the Airavatesvara Temple at Darasuram were declared World Heritage Sites by the UNESCO. The sculptures and bronzes were also remarkable- Nataraja the Divine Dancer is one of the finest art.
  • Tamil literature flourished greatly during this dynasty. Some of the masterpieces were- Ottakuttan's Kulothunga Cholan Ula, Kamban's Kambaramayanam, Jayamkondar's Kalingattuparani etc. Nannul a work on Tamil grammer during the Chola dynasty is still relevant.
  •  With the rise of Pandyan Dynasty the Chola dynasty started to decline and later it became the reason of its downfall.

Indian Dances: facts, information, general knowledge

India has a very rich culture of dance and music. From the ancient times, different dance forms are practiced in India. Indian dances were originated to praise the gods and has a significant influence of mythology, legends, and literature.

  • Indian dances are generally categorized as classical dances and folk dances. Besides that semi classical and tribal dance forms are also recognized. Indian contemporary dances are the fusion and experimentation of different dance forms including Western forms.
  • Sangeet Natak Akademi recognizes 8 dance forms as classical - Bharatanatyam, Kathak, Kuchipudi, Odissi, Kathakali, Sattriya, Manipuri and Mohiniyattam. Culture Ministry of India recognizes Chhau as also classical dance besides those eight.
  • The dance forms which are traceable to the ancient classical texts, specially Natya Shastra are called classical dances. While Folk dances are the ones which are passed through word of mouth from generation to generation. 
  • Natya Shastra is one of the most ancient text on dance. It is attributed to the sage Bharata. It consists 36 chapters and 6000 verses. It is dated back to 200 BCE and 200CE.

Origin of Classical Dances of India

Dances States
Bharatanatyam Tamilnadu
Kathakali Kerala
Kathak North India
Kuchipudi Andhra Pradesh
Odissi Odisha
Sattriya Assam
Manipuri Manipur
Mohiniyattam  Kerala

Some other dance Forms

Dances States
Bidesha Bihar
Bhangra Punjab
Chau West Bengal
Bihu Assam
Garba Gujarat
Ghumar Rajasthan
Gidda Punjab
Lavni Maharashtra
Lota Madhya Pradesh
Rouf Jammu and Kashmir
Nautanki Uttar Pradesh
Swang Haryana
Tamasha Maharashtra
Yakshangana Karnataka
Chholiya Uttarakhand

Sri Aurobindo: facts, biography, information

Sri Aurobindo was an Indian freedom fighter who later turned into a yogi, guru. He also wrote many books and poem.
aurobindo
Sri Aurobindo 1972-1950
  • He was born on 15th August, 1872 in Calcutta. His father was Krishna Dhun Ghose and his mother was Swarnalata Devi. They had five children. Aurobindo was the third child. His maternal grandfather Shri Rajnarayan Bose was a very prestigious person. His father was a member of Brahmo Samaj and used to think British Culture as superior.
  • He studied from Loreto House boarding school in Darjeeling. His father’s wish was to enter his children into Indian Civil Service Organization. For that they needed to study in England. In 1879, the whole family moved to England. Aurobindo and his brothers were placed under the care of W. H. Drewett, a friend of his father. Under the Drewetts care, he learned Latin, grammar, history. Later he joined St Paul's School and after that was admitted to the King’s college, Cambridge. He successfully cleared the ICS entrance examination but purposefully got himself disqualified in the practical examination as he had no interest in ICS.
  • With the help of his father’s friend, he got a place in Baroda State Service. He moved to Baroda in 1893. During his stay in Baroda, he became interested in the India’s independence movement. He started to communicate with different rebellion group of Bengal. He also started writing articles in different magazines. In 1906, he moved to Bengal. He helped to establish many youth clubs for the independence movement. One of the youth club was Anushilan Samiti. He travelled a lot to get support for the nationalist movement.
  • In 1908, he was arrested in the connection of Alipore Bomb Case. After a year, he was acquitted. During this time, his life got changed. He started to see the life differently. He started practicing yoga and meditation. He distanced himself from the politics and later moved to Pondicherry in 1910.
  • In Pondicherry, he started a magazine called Arya. He started publishing different spiritual articles on Gita and Vedas. Later these articles were revised and published as books- Essays on The Gita, The Secret of The Veda, Hymns to the Mystic Fire, The Synthesis of Yoga.
  • With the increase of followers, in 1926 they established the Sri Aurobindo Ashram. Aurobindo’s close aid was Mirra Richard, also known as The Mother. After the death of Aurobindo, she took the responsibility of the ashram.
  • One of his famous poem was Savitri. It was an epic poem of 24,000 lines.
  • He was nominated for the Nobel Peace prize in 1950 and Nobel prize for Literature in 1943.
  • He took his last breath on December 5, 1950.

List of Presidents of India: facts, information, gk

Indian President is the head of state of India. President of India is elected  indirectly by people of India through the elected members of Both the houses of Parliament and members of Legislative Assembly of states and Union Territories. Here is the list of presidents of India after the independence of India.

List of Indian Presidents

Presidents of India Description
Dr.Rajendra Prasad (1884-1963)
From 01/26/50 to 05/13/62
First president of India
Only Indian president who served twice
He was the longest serving president of India
Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (1888-1975)
From 05/13/62 to 05/13/67
First Vice President of India
First president from south India
Won Bharat Ratna in 1954
His Birthday is celebrated as Teachers Day on 5th September
Zakir Hussain (1897-1969)
From 05/13/67 to 05/03/69
First Muslim President of India
He was the first president who dies in office
He was also the shortest serving president of India
Zakir Hussain co founded the jamia Milia Islamia.
He was awarded Bharat Ratna in 1963

Varahagiri Venkata Giri (1894-1980)
From 05/03/69 to 07/20/69
After the uncertain death of Zakir Hussain, he was elected as acting president.
He was the shortest serving vice president.
Sometimes, he was also called as Rubber Stamp President of India.
He was conferred Bharat Ratna in 1975
 Muhammad Hidayatullah (1905-1992)
From 07/20/69 to 08/24/69
 He was a eminent jurist, scholar and educationist.
He had also served as Chief Justice of India and as Vice President of India
Varahagiri Venkata Giri (1894-1980)
From 08/24/69 to 08/24/74
He was the first president who has served as Acting President.
 Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed (1905-1977)
From 08/24/74 to 02/11/77
He was a lawyer and second president to die in office
 Basappa Danappa Jatti (1912-2002)
From 02/11/77 to 07/25/77
He also served as the acting president after the death of F A Ahmed
Neelam Sanjiva Reddy (1913-1996)
From 07/25/77 to 07/25/82
He was the first Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh
He was the youngest President of India
He was also elected as the speaker of lok sabha for twice before he became president.
Giani Zail Singh (1916-1994)
From 07/25/82 to 07/25/87
He was the president when the anti Sikh riot of 1984 occurred.
In his tenure, Operation bluestar and assassination of Indira Gandhi occurred.
Ramaswamy Venkataraman (1910-2009)
From 07/25/87 to 07/25/92
He was a lawyer and an activist during the Independence movement of india
Shankar Dayal Sharma (1918-1999)
From 07/25/92 to 07/25/97
He also served as Chief Minister of Bhopal and Vice President of India
Kocheril Raman Narayanan (1920-2005)
From 07/25/97 to 07/25/02
He was the first Dalit President of India.
A.P.J. Abdul Kalam (1931-2015)
From 07/25/02 to 07/25/07
He was a scientist and helped in development of ballistic missile and launch vehicle. He was also called the Missile man of India
He is popularly called as People's President.
In 1997 he was awarded with Bharat Ratna
Smt. Pratibha Patil (1934-Alive)
From 07/25/07 to 07/25/12
She is the first woman president of India
Pranab Mukherjee (1935-Alive)
From 07/25/12 onwards
He is associated with the indian politics for a long time. He held many cabinet portfolios - Defence, Finance, External Affairs.

Important Lakes of India: facts, information, general knowledge

India is the home of many beautiful and diverse type of lakes. It has glacier lakes in Himalaya, tectonic lakes in Kashmir, lagoons along the sea cost, oxbow lakes in ganga plains etc.

List of Important Indian Lakes

Lake Description
Pulicat Situated in Andhra Pradesh
It is the second largest brakish water lake of India
Sriharikota island separates this lake from Bay of Bengal. Sriharikota is the home of Satish Dhawan Space Centre
Kanwar It is situated in Bihar
It is Asia’s largest fresh water oxbow lake
Chilika It is situated in Odisha
Worlds second and India’s largest coastal lagoon.
Place for migrating birds in winter.
Dhebar Situated in Rajasthan
It is India’s second largest artificial lake
Sambhar It is in Rajasthan
It is the India’s largest inland salt water lake
It is the most saline lake of India
Vembanad Kayal Located in Kerala
It is the longest lake of India
It is the largest lake of Kerala
Lonar It is situated in Maharashtra
The impact of a Meteor created it
Kolleru It is in Andhra Pradesh
It is between the Krishna and Godavari Delta
It is one of the largest fresh water lake of India
Wular Located in Jammu and Kashmir
It is the largest fresh water lake of India
It was created by Tectonic activity and fed by river Jhelum
Dal lake It is situated in Srinagar
Asia’s largest tulip garden is in the banks of this lake.
This lake is also known as Srinagar’s Jewel
Loktak It is in Manipur
It is the largest fresh water lake of North East India
Keibul Lamjao, the only floating National Park of World, floats over it
Nal Sarovar Lake Located in Gujarat
It is the home of Largest bird sanctuary of India
Roop Kund Located in Uttarakhand
It has a very special place for the Hindu devotees. It is also known as Skeleton Lake

National Symbols of India: facts, information, general knowledge

National Flag of India

  • “Tiranga” or “Tricolour” is the National flag of India. It was adopted as national flag of India on 22 July 1947 by constituent assembly.
  • Pingali Venkayya was the designer of Indian National flag. The ratio of width to length of the flag is 2:3.
  • The colors of the national flag represents some meaning. The saffron color of the flag stands for courage, Sacrifice and spirit of Renunciation; White stands for Truth and Purity; Green stands for faith and fertility; Ashok chakra represents the wheel of law. It has 24 spokes.

National Emblem of India

  • Lion Capital adopted from Ashok stambh (pillar) of Sarnath is the national emblem of India. It was adopted as the national emblem of India on 26 January 1950.
  • King Ashoka build this stambhs during his reign to popularize Buddha dharma.
  • In Ashok Stambh four lions are depicted as seated back to back. They represent power, courage, confidence, and pride.
  • Ashok Chakra of National Flag was taken from the Dharam Chakra depicted in the Ashok Stambh.
  • The words "Satyamev Jayate" are also inscribed in this Stambha.

National Anthem of India

  • Jana Gana Mana is the National Anthem of India.On 24 January 1950, It was adopted as the national anthem of India.
  • It was written by Noble Laureate Rabindranath Tagore. It is the first five stanzas of Brahma Hymn.
  • The Original poem was written in Bengali. It was translated to Hindi by Abid Ali.
  • Jana Gana Mana was first sung on 27 December 1911 in the Calcutta Session of the Indian National Congress.

National Song of India

  • In 1950, the first two verse of the song Vande Matram was selected as the National Song of India.
  • The song was written by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay in his noble Anandamath. Jadunath Bhattacharya composed the music.
  • In 1986, Rabindranath Tagore sung the song for the first time in the Session of Indian National Congress. This song was used heavily in the Independence Movement of India.

National Calendar of India

  • Saka Calendar is the national calendar of India. In the year 1957, It was adopted as the national calendar of India.

National Flower of India

  •  Lotus is the national flower of India

National Bird of India

  • Peacok is the national bird of India. In 1964, peacock was declared as the national bird of India. It is protected by the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.

National Animal of India

  • Tiger is the national animal of India. To protect the tigers in India, Project Tiger was launched in 1973.

National Fruit of India

  • Mango is the national fruit of India.

National Tree of India

  • Banyan is the national tree of India.

P C Mahalanobis : facts, biography, information

P C Mahalanobis or Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis was an Indian scientist and statistician. He is well known for the Mahalanobis distance, a statistical measure formulated by him.
p c mahalanobis
P C Mahalanobis 1893-1972
  • PC Mahalanobis was born on June 29, 1893 in Calcutta. He was born in a family of intellectuals.
  • His father Prabodh Chandra Mahalanobis was a professor of Presidency College. His mother was Nirodbasini. His grandfather Gurucharan was an active social reformer. Gurucharan was actively involved with Brahmo Samaj. 
  • PC Mahalanobis completed his schooling from Brahmo Boys School and joined Presidency College. He completed his Bachelors of Science degree in Physics in 1912. Later in 1913, he joined the Kings College of University of Cambridge.
  • During his stay in England, he developed a great interest in Statistics. He found that the statistics can be applied in the problems of meteorology and anthropology.
  • After completing his education, he worked with C. T. R. Wilson at the Cavendish Laboratory and later as a professor of physics in Presidency University.
  • In Presidency, he started a group for the people interested in statistics. Later this group started to grow and eventually turned into Indian Statistical Institute. ISI was registered in 1932. In 1933, they started the journal Sankhya.
  • Under his leadership ISI grew to a great extent. In 1959, ISI was declared as an institute of national importance and a deemed university.
  • His major contribution to statistics was Mahalanobis distance. Which he discovered during the studies of anthropometric measurements of Anglo-Indians in Calcutta.
  • He was the pioneer of pilot surveys. His contribution in large scale survey is immense. Between 1937 to 1944, he conducted many large scale surveys.
  • After the independence of India, he established the Central Statistical Organization to coordinate statistical activities in India. He was also the member of second planning commission which helped in rapid industrialization of India.
  • He was honored with many prestigious awards- Padma Vibhushan (1968); Weldon Memorial Prize from the University of Oxford (1944); Fellow of the Royal Society, London (1945). In 2006, Indian Government declared the 29th June as National Statistical Day to celebrate the birthday of P C Mahalanobis.
  • On 28 June 1972, he took his last breath.

Timeline of P C Mahalanobis

1893 He was Born in Calcutta
1908 Completed his schooling
1912 Graduated from Presidency College
1913 Joined the Cambridge University
1923 Married to Nirmalkumari
1932 Established the ISI
1936 Mahalanobis distance introduced
1944 Weldon Medel from Oxford
1945 Fellow of Royal Society of London
1948 Retired from the Presidency College
1951 Established the Central Statistical Institute
1953 Member of Planning Commission
1968 Padma Vibhushan
1972 Took last breath

Overview of ISRO : facts, information, general knowledge

ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization) is a Space Research Organisation of Government of India. It is located in Bengaluru.
  • ISRO was established in 1969 by replacing Indian national committee for space research (INCOSPAR) which was established in 1962.
  • ISRO is managed by department of space which falls under Prime Minister of India.
  • Vikram Sarabhai also known as father of Indian space program was the first Chairman of ISRO. It was his effort which helped to establish ISRO.
  • On 28 September 1992, Antrix corporation was established. It is a commercial arm of ISRO which promotes services and products of ISRO.
  • The first satelite developed by ISRO was Aryabhata. Aryabhata was launched was by Soviet Union on 19 April 1975. The first satelite developed and launched by India was Rohini satelite.
  • ISRO has developed many satellite launch vehicles. The satellite launch vehicles in order of  their creation are SLV (Satelite launch Vehicle), ASLV (Augmented Satelite launch Vehicle), PSLV (Polar Satelite launch Vehicle), GSLV (Geosynchronous Satelite launch Vehicle), GSLV Mark III. PSLV is one of the most trusted satelite launch vehicle of world.
    Organization Structure of ISRO

Timeline of ISRO 

1962 INCOSPAR was established
1969 ISRO was formed superceeding INCOSPAR
1971 Satish Dhawan Space Centre formed in Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh.
1972 DoS was established. ISRO was brought under DoS
1975 First Indian satellite, Aryabhata was launched
1980 Rohini satelite was successfully placed by indegenous launch vehicle SLV 3
1992 First successful launch of ASLV placing SROSS-C satellite, Antrix was formed
1994 First successful launch of PSLV placed IRS-P2 in orbit
1999 Carried foriegn satellites for the first time. Multiple satellites were launched for the first time
2001 First successful launch of GSLV with GSAT-1 satellite
2005 Second launch pad at Sriharikota
2008 Launch of Chandrayaan-1. Launch of 10 satellites by a single PSLV
2009 First satellite (ANUSAT)from an Indian university (Anna University) was launched
2013 MOM (Mangalayaan) was launched
2014 Mangalayaan was succesfully placed in Mars orbit
2016 Created a record by placing 20 satellites in a single payload