Interesting facts and information about the Election Commission of India

Election Commission of India is a constitutionally established authority which is responsible for conducting elections in India.
  • Election commission is a permanent and independent body. It also conducts elections of State Legislatures, President and Vice President.
  • Election Commission is controlled by chief election commissioner and two other election commissioners.
  • President of India appoints the chief election commissioner for a term of six years or up to the age 65 of election commissioner, whichever is earlier. Other two commissioners are appointed by the president and chief election commissioner.
  •  In the beginning there was only the chief commissioner in the election commission. On 16 October, 1989 two additional commissioners were appointed for the first time to reduce the work load of chief election commissioner. Election commission became permanently multi member body after the constitution amendment act,1993.
  • The first election commissioner was Sukumar Sen. Current election commissioner is Achal Kumar Jyoti.
  • The chief election commissioner can be dismissed from his position only through impeachment of parliament. Other two commissioners can be removed by the the president through the recommendation of chief election commissioner.
  • With the improvement of technologies, election commission introduced EVM (electronic voting machine ) to improve election procedures. It was first tried in 1982  in Kerala for legislative assembly elections in limited numbers.

Some facts about EVM

  • EVMs are made of two units – Control unit and Ballot unit. Control unit belongs to polling officer who validates the voter’s identity and ballot unit belongs to voter in secret compartment to cast his vote. Once the polling officer validates the identity, then voter can cast his vote.
  • A EVM can store maximum 3840 votes.
  • EVM’s ballot unit can have 16 candidates. For more candidates, two or more ballot units (Up to 4) are joined. So, EVM’s can be used for maximum 64 candidates
  • EVM does not require external power. It runs by the 6V alkaline battery. Which makes EVM useful in most disconnected constituency also.
  • It is manufactured by BEL, Bangalore and ECI, Hyderabad
NOTA (None of the Above):
This option is provided to voter from 2013. If the voter does not like any of the candidates then he can use NOTA option. This option is based on the principle that “consent requires the ability to withhold consent in an election”. Still now the votes castes against NOTA are counted as invalid. But it is useful to increase voting percentage and thus helps to reduce bogus votes.

Functions of election commission

  • The main function of election commission is to conduct a fair election.
  • Election commission is responsible for declaring different important dates for election, vote counting, declaration of result.Every party needs to be recognized by election commission. They needs to register their electoral symbol..
  • Election commission examines the expenses of the candidates for the election.
  • Before every election, election commission declares a code of conduct to be followed by the parties. 
  • They prepare and revises the voter list and also issues voter’s identity card

Interesting facts and information about Lok Sabha

Lok Sabha is a part of Parliament. It is also called the house of people or the lower house in the parliament.
  • There are 545 members in the Lok Sabha. Out of which 543 members are directly elected from the States (523) and union territories (20). Other two members are selected by Indian president from the Anglo-Indian community. Maximum number of members can be elected for Lok Sabha is 552. Among this 530 from states, 20 from Union Territory and two from Anglo Indian Community
  • No of Members selected from States 523
    No of members selected from Union Territories 20
    No of seats reserved for Scheduled Casts(SC) 84
    No of seats reserved for Schuduled Tribes (ST) 47
    No of seats for Anglo Indian community 2
    Currently the strength of Lok Sabha 545
    Maximum seats of Lok Sabha 552(550 from states and UT & 2 from Anglo Indian community)
  • A person is eligible for the seat of Lok Sabha only if -
  • a) He/she is a citizen of India
    b) His/her age would be greater than 25 years
    c) He/she must not be of unsound mind
    d) He/she must be an elector from any parliamentary constituency
    f) He/she must not hold any profitable post in any government offices.
  • To run the Lok Sabha properly, a speaker and a deputy speaker is elected from the members of Lok Sabha on the first meeting after the election.
  • The members of Lok Sabha are elected for the term of five years. Though in case of emergency this can be extended for a year.
  • The first Lok Sabha was held on 17 April, 1952. Indian Congress won the first election by 75.99% of votes. Jawaharlal Nehru was the first Prime Minister.
  • The quorum (Minimum number of members needed to carry on the meeting of Lok Sabha) of Lok Sabha is 1/10th of its total members. 
  • In a year, Lok Sabha has three sessions (house meeting to conduct business).
  • Session Duration
    Budget Session February to May
    Monsoon Session July to September
    Winter Session November to December
  • "Lok sabha tv" is the lok Sabha's own Tv channel which is headquartered in the premises of parliament.  

Powers of Lok Sabha

  • Any bill (Except Money Bill) can be passed if it is passed in both the houses
  • It has the same power as Rajya Sabha in case of impeachment of president and the judges of supreme court.
  • It has equal power as Rajya Sabha in passing any bill for constitutional amendment.
  • Lok Sabha members has the power to elect the president, vice president.

 Special Powers of Lok Sabha

    1) Money bills can only be passed in Lok Sabha. After a bill is passed in Lok Sabha, it is sent to Rajya Sabha for any recommendations. Rajya Sabha is bound to provide recommendations within 14 days otherwise the bill gets passed automatically. It is up to Lok Sabha to consider or not to consider the recommendations of Rajya Sabha.
    2) Motion of no confidence can only be introduced in Lok Sabha. If it is passed then the prime minister and other council of ministers need to resign from their post.

    Number of Lok Sabha Constituency of Different States and Union Territories

    State/Union Territory Number of Parliamentary seats
    Andhra Pradesh 25
    Arunachal Pradesh 2
    Assam 14
    Bihar 40
    Chhattisgarh 11
    Goa 2
    Gujarat 26
    Haryana 10
    Himachal Pradesh 4
    Jammu and Kashmir 6
    Jharkhand 14
    Karnataka 28
    Kerala 20
    Madhya Pradesh 29
    Maharashtra 48
    Manipur 2
    Meghalaya 2
    Mizoram 1
    Nagaland 1
    Odisha 21
    Punjab 13
    Rajasthan 25
    Sikkim 1
    Tamil Nadu 39
    Telangana 17
    Tripura 2
    Uttar Pradesh 80
    Uttarakhand 5
    West Bengal 42
    Andaman and Nicobar Islands 1
    Chandigarh 1
    Dadra and Nagar Haveli 1
    Daman and Diu 1
    Lakshadweep 1
    NCT of Delhi 7
    Puducherry 1

    Important facts and information about Rajya Sabha

    Rajya Sabha or Council of States is an Indian constitutional body. It is also called the upper house of the parliament.
    Rajya Sabha
    Rajya Sabha
    • Rajya Sabha has 250 members. Among these 250 members, 238 are representatives of States and union territories. Other 12 members are selected by Indian president according to their achievement in science, arts, literature. Currently Rajya Sabha has only 245 members. 233 elected and 12 nominated.
    • The Hindi name “Rajya Sabha” of Council of States was adopted on 23 August 1954.
    • A person is eligible as a member of Rajya Sabha only if a) he/she ïs a citizen of India b) his/her age is greater than 30 years c) he/she must be an elector from the state,for which he/she is representing.
    • Vice president of India acts as the chairman of Rajya Sabha. In his absence deputy chairman take care the job of chairman of Rajya Sabha. The person for the post of deputy chairman is elected from the members of Rajya Sabha.
    • The tenure of the member of Rajya Sabha is six years. After every two years, one third of the total members of Rajya Sabha retires.
    • The first sitting in Rajya Sabha held on 13 may,1952. Unlike the lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha is not dissolved.
    • The Quorum (Minimum number of members to be present to make the meeting of Rajya Sabha valid) of Rajya Sabha is one tenth of total members of Rajya Sabha. 
    • The members of Rajya Sabha are elected by the single transferable vote system. The members of state Legislative assembly selects a predefined number of members for the Rajya Sabha. The number of members one state Legislative Assembly can elect is depended on the population of that state (proportional representation).

    Functions of Rajya Sabha

    • Any bill (except the money bills) needs to be approved by Rajya Sabha to get passed. If the bill gets stuck for more than six months then President calls for a joint session of both the houses to resolve the deadlock.
    • Money Bill:
      Rajya Sabha does not have any power to amend or reject the Money bill. Lok Sabha can only introduce Money bill and once it is approved my Lok Sabha, it is passed to Rajya Sabha for its approval. If Rajya Sabha fails to pass it within 14 days then the bill gets passed without the approval of Rajya Sabha. Also, Lok Sabha does not need to consider the amendments proposed my Rajya Sabha. Lok Sabha can reject all the proposals and pass it.
    • It has the same power as Lok Sabha, for passing any bill for constitutional amendment.
    • The members of Rajya Sabha have the electoral power for selection of President, Vice President. Together with the members of Lok Sabha and all the State Legislative Assemblies they elect the President and Vice President.
    • It has power in the impeachment procedure of president and judges of supreme court and high court.

       Special Powers of Rajya Sabha

    1) Rajya Sabha has the power to make a state list subject into National Importance. If two third majority of the members of Rajya Sabha passes a resolution to support it.
    2) Rajya Sabha can also create or abolish an All India Service. If majority of members (2/3 of Total Members) supports it.

    Number of members different states can elect for Rajya Sabha

    Name of state and union territory No. of Seats
    Andhra Pradesh 11
    Arunachal Pradesh 1
    Assam 7
    Bihar 16
    Chhattisgarh 5
    Goa 1
    Gujarat 11
    Haryana 5
    Himachal Pradesh 3
    Jammu & Kashmir 4
    Jharkhand 6
    Karnataka 12
    Kerala 9
    Madhya Pradesh 11
    Maharashtra 19
    Manipur 1
    Meghalaya 1
    Mizoram 1
    Nagaland 1
    National Capital Territory (Delhi) 3
    Nominated 12
    Odisha 10
    Puducherry 1
    Punjab 7
    Rajasthan 10
    Sikkim 1
    Tamil Nadu 18
    Telangana 7
    Tripura 1
    Uttar Pradesh 31
    Uttarakhand 3
    West Bengal 16
    Total 245

    Interesting facts and information about Hinduism



    Hinduism is one of the most ancient religions and considered to be one of the four major religions in the world. Originating from India (Asia) and the Vedic culture, Hinduism is now spread in most parts of the world. There are over 1.08 billion of Hindus living around the globe today. Hinduism, also referred to as Sanatan Dharma by certain scholars, is polytheistic by nature.
    Swastika

    • A majority of Hindus are found currently living in India, Nepal, Mauritius, the Caribbean, and Bali in Indonesia. India is dominated by an 80% majority of Hindus.
    • The name'Hindu' is taken from the Sanskrit name "Sindhu" of the Indus river given to it by the Aryans in the second millennium BCE.
    • A red dot that is placed on the forehead is a symbol of being a Hindu. It is placed on the forehead before any worshipping or prayers begin. Hindu women use this a beauty symbol and in their context, it is called a Bindi. The red dot implies the divine sight and the spiritual evolution.
    • The religion was founded by no single founder. It is understood from the ancient texts, The Vedas, Puranas, and the Upanishads. Also, epics such as Ramayana and Mahabharata are considered of high importance. A portion of Mahabharata evolved as a separate book of teachings by Lord Sri Krishna, "The BhagvadGita".
    • The religion is polytheistic by nature, i.e. it involves worshipping many gods and goddesses. However, the basic premise is the existence of one supreme power (Brahma) that is channelized in the many gods and goddesses.
    • Buddism, Jainism and Sikhism have all evolved from Hinduism at different times due to different callings from society and times.
    • Karma Theory is an important theory of Hinduism. Reincarnation is believed to be based on karma. They say the cycle of birth, that includes birth, death, and rebirth is based on the Karma (actions) of a human
    • Important symbols of Hinduism are Swastika, Om, lotus, trisula.
    • Hindus respect the cow animal. It is regarded as a mother. Hindus do not eat cow or buffalo flesh and eating such a thing is considered a sin. On the contrary, whatever is naturally created/secreted by cow, such as, cow milk, ghee, even cow urine and dung is considered pure and sacred.
    • The knowledge of Hinduism is preserved in the ancient texts called the Vedas - Rig Veda, Sam Veda, Yajur Veda and Atharva Veda.
    • Yoga is one of the biggest contributions of Hinduism to the whole world. It is a set of techniques of training the mind, body, and soul for the attainment of superior well-being and longevity, spirituality and as well mental balance.
    • Casteism was a form of a division of the society on the basis of the occupation and would be applicable on generations to follow. This practice led to discrimination and exploitation of the lowest class. It has been done away with in modern India post Independence. Presently it is against law to discriminate against or look down up insultingly or abuse on the basis of caste, gender or even region.

    Shah Jahan: facts, history, biography

    Shah Jahan was the fifth Mughal Emperor. His full name was Mirza Shahabuddin Baig Muhammad Khan Shah Jahan. He is famous for building the Taj Mahal. He ruled form 1628 to 1658.

    Shahjahan
    • He was the son of the Mughal emperor Jahangir. His mother was Bilquis Makani. His grandfather Akbar gave him the name "Khurram". He was trained under the sight of Akbar and his grandmother Ruqaiya.
    • He had a strained relationship with his step mother Nur Jahan. Nur Jahan was planning and supporting his son in law Shahryar for the throne. His father Jahangir was very much depended on Nur Jahan. Despite that, after the death of Jahangir, Shah Jahan succeeded the Throne. And imprisoned his stepmother Nur Jahan, executed his rivals.
    • Under his patronage, Mughal empire was extended very much. He conquered the Kandahar, defeated the Rajputs of Baglana, Mewar and Bundelkhand.
    • During his reign, the state was overall peaceful and the revenue was increased. The justice was followed without any discrimination.
    • He had many marriages. But he was in love with his wife Mumtaz Mahal. The stories of their love affairs are still discussed. After the death of Mumtaz Mahal, he builds the tomb Taj Mahal.
    • Shah Jahan’s reign is regarded as Golden Period for art and architecture. He built several monuments and forts. Some of architecture built during his reign were- Red Fort, Jama Masjid, Moti Masjid or Pearl Mosque, Takht-e-Taus, Shalimar Gardens.
    • His end of life was not that good. When he fell seek, his son Aurangzeb took over the throne and house poisoned him in the fort of Agra. He died in the imprisonment in 1666.

    Indian State Kerala: facts, information

    Kerala is an Indian state which is in the southern part of India. Indian states Tamilnadu and Karnataka surrounds it. It is also known as God's Own Country, Spice Garden of India, Land of Coconuts.

    Kerala
    Kerala
    • Area wise it is the 22nd largest state of India and 13th largest state per the population. Malayalam is the main language spoken by the people of Kerala. It was formed on 1 November 1956.
    • Thiruvananthapuram is the capital of Kerala. It has 14 districts- Kasaragod, Kannur, Wayanad, Kozhikode, Palakkad, Thrissur, Ernakulam, Idukki, Malappuram Kottayam, Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam, Alappuzha, Pathanamthitta.
    • Kerala has the highest literacy rate in India. It was the first state which became fully literate state in 1991. Besides having highest literacy rate, it also has highest HDI (Human Development Index) and lowest population growth rate.
    • Kerala is the highest rubber and black pepper producer of India. Other agricultural products are – Different Spices, Coconut, Cashew, Tea, Coffee.
    • Anamudi is the highest mountain peak of Kerala. Vembanad is the largest lake of Kerala and Periyar is the longest river.
    • Kerala Backwaters is very famous among the tourists. It is a network of interconnected canals, rivers, lakes, and brackish lagoons. It is a home of many unique sea animals. Different trees and plants surrounding the waterbody creates wonderful atmosphere for the tourists. Different type of houseboats float around this backwaters.
    • It is the first Indian state which receives rains during the Monsoon. About 120-150 days per year is rainy in Kerala.
    • Kerala is most biodiverse state of India. Around 25% of India's 15,000 plant species are in Kerala. Kerala is famous for Indian elephants. Beside Indian Elephants, Indian leopard, Nilgiri tahr, Bengal Tiger are also found.
    • Technopark of Thiruvananthapuram is the first technology park of India. It is one of the largest IT park of India.
    • Most of the Keralite are emigrants working in foreign countries, mainly in Arab.
    • Kerala is one of the most attractive tourist destination. It has beaches like Kovalam, Varkala, Vizhinjam, Hill stations like Munnar, Nelliyampathy, Wildlife Sancturies like Parambikulam national park, Silent valley, Backwaters like Alapuzha, Kollam. That’s why it is also called “God’s own Country”.

    Interesting facts and information about Taj Mahal

    Taj Mahal is a beautiful monument made of white Marble which is situated at Agra, India. It is one of the Wonders of World.

    Taj Mahal
    Taj Mahal
    • Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan built it. After the death of his wife Mumtaz Mahal, he built this tomb.
    • The construction was started in 1632 and the work completed around 1653.
    • This massive project took a huge man power (around 20,000) to build. People from different countries were employed to build this beautiful piece of art. Ustad-Ahmad Lahori was the chief architect.
    • It was declared as the World Heritage site by UNESCO in 1983.
    • Taj Mahal attracts huge number of tourists. About 8 million tourists visits it every year.
    • Due to rise in pollution, the white marble has started to turn into yellow. Which has generated a lot of tension among the people. Indian Government has setup a special zone (Taj Trapezium Zone (TTZ)) around the Taj Mahal to cope with it.
    • The literal meaning of Taj Mahal is “The Crown of Palaces”.
    • The Taj Mahal was built using the white marbles. Besides that, different type of stones and materials were used from different part of the world for the construction. About 28 different precious stones were used. Taj Mahal is only one of the few monuments which has a symmetrical structure.

    Interesting facts and information about Ramayana

    Ramayana is an epic poem of ancient India. There are mainly two epic poems of ancient India. One is Ramayana and another is Mahabharata. Both have a very high importance in Hinduism.

    Ramayana
    • Rishi Valmiki was the author of Ramayana.
    • Ramayana is one of the largest literature. It has 24,000 verses, divided into seven Kandas (books) and about 500 sargas (chapters). The Seven Kandas are – Bala kanda, Ayodhya kanda, Aranya kanda, Kishkindha kanda, Sundara kanda, Yuddha kanda, Uttara kanda.
    • There is no clarity on when it was written. Though it is believed that it was written around 4th Century BCE. Sometimes it is reffered as Adi Kavya (adi =first; kavya = poem). It is considered that Ramayana was existed before the Mahabharata.
    • The literal meaning of Ramayana is “Rama’s Journey”. Rama is the central character of Ramayana. Rama is portrayed as an ideal person in the epic.
    • Many authors had written different versions of Ramayana in different languages. Some of them are - Kamban's Ramavataram in Tamil, Krittibas Ojha's Krittivasi Ramayan (also known as Shri Rama Panchali) in Bengali, Tulsidas' Ramcharitamanas in Awadhi, Sant Eknath's Bhavarth Ramayan in Marathi, Gona Budda Reddy's Ramayanam in Telugu.
    • Ramayana has a great impact on Indian art and culture. Many characters and incidents depicted in Ramayana can be found on different Indian Temples and Art. Rama is worshiped as incarnation of God Vishnu. Different literatures still use characters of Ramayana. Many movies and TV series are made on Ramayana.
    • Different characters described in the Ramayana are believed as incarnation of different gods. Like- Rama as incarnation of Vishnu, Sita as incarnation of Laxmi, Laxman as incarnation of Shesha Naga, Hanuman as incarnation of Shiva.

    Raj Kapoor: facts, biography, information

    Raj Kapoor was a famous Indian film actor, director and producer. He is famous for his films like Mera naam Joker, Awara, Sangam. He is also called as “Showman of indian Cinema”.

    Nargis, Raj Kapoor, Dilip Kumar
    • He was born on 14 December 1924 in Peshawar, India (Currently in Pakistan).
    • His father was Prithviraj Kapoor and his mother was Ramsarni Devi Kapoor. Prithviraj Kapoor and Ramsarni Devi Kapoor had six children. Raj Kapoor was the eldest. His brother Shashi Kapoor and the late Shammi Kapoor are also actor. His father was also an actor. He married to Krishna Malhotra and had five children.
    • He completed his education from Colonel Brown Cambridge School, Dehradun and St Xavier's Collegiate School.
    • He appeared for the first time in the film Inquilab. He was only 10 years old at that time. His first successful film as a lead actor was Neel Kamal opposite Madhubala.
    • In the year 1924, he established the R K films and directed the film Aag. He was only 24 at that time. That made him the youngest film director at that time.
    • His some of the famous films as director and actor were - Awaara, Shri 420,Sangam, Jagte Raho and Jis Desh Men Ganga Behti Hai.
    • In 1970 he made the fim Mera Naam Joker. It was his ambitious project and took lot of effort and time. But the film was a disaster and he suffered from financial crisis. Later the film turned into a classic and critics mentioned it as one of the best film directed by Raj Kapoor.
    • He also launched his sons Randhir Kapoor and Rishi Kapoor in his films Kal Aaj Aur Kal and Bobby.
    • He is also called as "Charlie Chaplin of Indian cinema” for portraying tramp like character in his films.
    • He was honoured with many awards. He won Dadasaheb Phalke Award in 1987. He was also bestowed with Padma Bhushan. He won three National Awards in his life.
    • He died on 2 June 1988 due to asthma. At that time, he was working on the film Henna. Which was later completed by his sons and released in 1991.

    Interesting facts and information about Mahabharata

    Mahabharata is one of the epic of ancient literature. This Sanskrit epic describes the war of Kurukshetra between the Kaurava and the Pandava princes. Mahabharata is the source of inspiration for many movies and serials.

    mahabharata
    Mahabharata
    • The Sage Vyasa authored the Mahabharata. He is also known as Krishna Dvaipāyana, Veda Vyāsa. Many people suggest that Vyasa was not a person but a group of sages having great knowledge of Vedas.
    • Mahabharata is the longest text of the world. It consists about 100,000 shlokas and 1.8 million words. The other Indian epic Ramayana, is 4 times smaller than Mahabharata.
    • “Mahabharata” literally means the Great story of Bharata. It is believed that the Mahabharata was written in the early Vedic Period.
    • Mahabharata was first recited by sage Vaisampayana, a disciple of Vyasa. He recited it to the king Janamejaya, the great grandson of Arjuna.
    • Among the different stories and different subsections of Mahabharata, one of the main event was the conversation of Arjuna and Krishna at the battlefield. This conversation created one of the most sacred Hindu religious scripture – “Bhagavad Gita”.
    • It is said that when Vyasa conceived the idea of Mahabharata. He thought that it will not be possible for him to complete it in his lifetime. So, he asked the help of Brahma and finally God Ganesha helped vyasa to write it.
    • It has 18 parvas- Adi, Sabha, Van, Udyog, Virat, Bhisma, Dhron, Kama, Shalya, Stri, Shasti, Anushashan, Ashwamedhie, Ashramvasik, and Shanti. Mahaprasthanic and Swargarohan.
    • Sometimes it is also called as fifth Veda due to vast inner context that it carries.
    • The Kurukshetra war was fought for 18 days. Kurukshetra is in Haryana where this war was fought.
    • Mahabharata has thousands of characters. Each character has a special role in the tale. Among them some of the interesting characters are- Shakuni, Krishna, Ekalavya, Karna, Bhisma, Arjun, Kunti, Draupadi, Ashwatthama, Yuyutsu, Bhima, Duryodhana, Gandhari…..any many more…

    Intersting facts and information about Delhi

    Delhi is the national capital territory of India. Haryana and Uttar Pradesh surrounds it. Delhi is also center of Indian politics and famously called as City of Rallies.

    India Gate
    • Delhi is the most expansive city of India and second most populous city (First is Mumbai) of India.
    • In 1991, it was declared as the National Capital Territory of India by The Constitution (Sixty-Ninth Amendment) Act, 1991. Under this act, the Central Government and Delhi Government both govern it.
    • Delhi has a very rich history. It was governed by Pandavas to Mughals. It served as the capital of many empires specially during Medieval period.
    • Delhi is one of the most polluted city of World. The air pollution is very high in the core city. It was declared most polluted city of world in 2014 by WHO.
    • Delhi is the home of many heritage sites and monuments which attracts a lot of tourists. Red Fort, Qutab Minar and Humayun's Tomb are the World Heritage sites of Delhi. Other monuments and places are India Gate, Lotus Temple, Purana Qila, Rajghat,
    • Delhi is famous for different foods. It is the place from where Mughlai cuisine originated. It is famous for Kebab, biryani, tandoori, samosa, chole bhature, chole kulche, jalebi. Delhi is also famous for its street foods. Gali Paranthe Wali of Chadni Chowk is famous among the foodies.
    • Azadpur market of Delhi is the largest fruit market of Asia. Khari Baoli Market is the largest Spice market of India.
    • Delhi used to be a walled city which had 14 gates. Among the gates five are still there- Ajmeri Gate, Kashmiri Gate, Lahori Gate, Delhi Gate and Turkman Gate.
    • The major bus services of Delhi are operated by DTC (Delhi Transport Corporation). It is the largest CNG-powered bus service operator in the world.
    • The Ridge of Delhi is famous for bird lovers. It makes Delhi the second most bird-rich capital city.

    Indian City Chennai : facts, information

    Chennai is the capital of Indian state Tamilnadu. It is one of the best cities to live in India. It is one of the best educational, economic center of India.

    Chennai
    Chennai
    • Chennai is the fourth largest city of India (Area wise) and sixth largest city (Population wise).
    • Chennai was formally known as Madras. In 1996, the name was changed from Madras to Chennai.
    • It is famously called as “Detroit of India”. As most of the automobile industry is located here. About one third automobile industry of the country is here.
    • The city lies on the thermal equator which makes it one of the hottest city of world. In May and June, the temperature rises to 40-degree C. It is generally referred as Agni Nakshatram ("fire star") or Kathiri Veyyil.
    • World’s second oldest Municipal Corporation -Greater Chennai Corporation governs Chennai. It was established in 1688.
    • It has the largest number of Heritage buildings in India after Kolkata. Some of them are - Chennai Central, Chennai Egmore, Madras High Court, Ripon Building, Chepauk Palace, College of Engineering, National Art Gallery.
    • It is also known for its art, dance, and culture. It is one of the important center of oldest dance form Bharata Natyam.
    • World’s second largest beach - Marina Beach is in Chennai.
    • It is one of the most attractive tourist destination. It is one of the most favored spot for the foreign tourists in India. That’s why it is sometimes referred as Gateway of South India. Some of the famous places are – Mahabalipuram (UNESCO World Heritage site), Madras Crocodile Bank Trust, Mariana Beach, Elliots Beach, Arignar Anna Zoological Park (One of the largest zoological park of Asia).
    • Chennai is the center of major Hospitals and Medical Facilities. It is sometimes referred as India’s health capital.

    Interesting facts and information about Bollywood

    Bollywood generally refers to Indian Film Industry. But in more accurate form it is the Hindi film industry based in Mumbai. Bollywood is the combination of two words “Bombay” (Mumbai was formally known as Bombay) and “Hollywood”.

    Bollywood
    • Bollywood is one of the largest film producers in the world. Around 200-300 films are produced each year. Which earns around 3000-4000 crores each year.
    • The first film made in India was the Raja Harishchandra (1913). It was a silent movie. The film was made by Dadasaheb Phalke. He is also called the Father of Indian Cinema. The first talkie of Indian Cinema was Alam Ara (1931).
    • The era 1940-1960 is regarded as the Golden era of Bollywood. In this period several critically hit films were made. Some them are- Awaara (1951), Aan (1952), Pyaasa (1957), Mother India (1957), Madhumati (1958), Kaagaz Ke Phool (1959).
    • The first color film of India was Kisan Kanya. It was made in 1937. But the trend of color cinema started during the 1950.
    • Bollywood movies are famous for its songs and dances. They are part of Indian films from the beginning of Talkies. The first Talkie Alam Ara had seven songs.
    • Dadasaheb Phalke award is the highest award of Indian Film Industry. Other prestigious awards are National Awards, Film fare awards. Dadasaheb phalke award was first awarded to Devika Rani in 1969.
    • Dilwale Dulhaniya Le Jayenge is the longest running film of the world. It ran for about 1000 weeks.
    • The longest movie of Bollywood is “Gangs of Wasseypur”. It was realased as single film in cannes film festival. It is about 319 minutes long.
    • Lagaan was the first film which was released in China.
    • First Indian cinema to get Palme d'Or at Cannes Film Festival was Neecha Nagar. It was released in 1946. Mother India was the first Indian movie which got Oscar Nomination for Best Foreign Language Film.

    Interesting facts and information about Bhagavad Gita

    Bhagavad Gita is one of the most sacred Hindu religious scripture. Many famous personalities have highly praised the Gita- Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, Herman Hesse, Abdul Kalam, Albert Einstein and many other people.

    "The Bhagavad-Gita is a true scripture of the human race a living creation rather than a book, with a new message for every age and a new meaning for every civilization." ~ Rishi Aurobindo
    Arjuna and Krishna at Kurukshetra
    • Gita is a part of Mahabharata. It is part of Bhishma Parva of Mahabharata (Chapters 25 to 42). Mahabharata is a epic scripture of Hinduism.
    • Bhagavad Gita consists 18 Chapters and it has 700 verses. It is written in Sanskrit.
    • It is a conversation between Arjuna and Krishna at the battlefield of Kurukshetra. In the battlefield when Arjuna was unable to decide what is right and what is wrong, he asked several questions to Krishna, Gita captures this questions of Arjuna and Krishna’s answers to those questions.
    • The literal meaning of Gita is “Song of God”.
    • The main theme of Gita is Dharma (Holy Duty). It descripes the different Yoga- Bhakti, Karma, Jnana; and Moksha or liberation.
    • Several commentaries have been written on Gita. Such as Śaṅkara, Rāmānuja, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, Bhāskara, Madhva. These commentaries vary from each other in views and meaning.
    • Charles Wilkins translated the Gita in English for the first time in 1785. Later it was also translated into different European languages.
    • It is believed that three other person besides Arjuna listened the Gita directly from Krishna. They were Sanjay, Hanuman, Barbarik son of Ghatotkach.

    Manik Bandopadhyay: facts, biography, information

    Manik Bandopadhyay was a bengali novel writer. He is famous for his novels and short stories that he wrote in his short life of 48 years.
    • He was born on 19 May 1908 in Dumka of Bihar. His original name was Prabodh Kumar Bandhopaddhay.
    • His parents were Harihar Bandopadhyay and Niroda Devi. They had fourteen children. Harihar Bandopadhyay was a government officer and had to visit a lot of place. This gave Manik a chance to connect with many people from his early life. He married to Kamala Devi and had 4 children.
    • He was a brilliant student. He passed the entrance examination in 1926 from Midnapore Zilla School. He secured first division in this examination. He joined the Welleslyvan Mission College at Bankura. In 1928 he passed his I.Sc. with first division. Later he joined the Presidency College, Calcutta. But he was not able to complete it due to financial problem.
    • Manik Bandopadhyay suffered from poverty almost throughout of his life. He started as Headmaster of Mymensingh Teachers Training School. But he switched many jobs in his career. Throughout of his life, his main source of income was writing.
    • His writing career started with the short story Atashimami. This was published in the magazine Bichitra. This story earned him a great respect in literary society. Throughout his life, he had published about 177 short stories. Some of them are- Atashi Mami (1935), Pragoitihashik (English: Pre-historic, 1937), Mihi O Mota Kahini (1938), Sarisrip (Amphibian, 1939), Bou (The Bride, 1940), Shamudrer Swad (The Taste of the Seas, 1943).
    • His some of novels are- Janani (Mother, 1935), Diba-Ratrir Kabya (Poetry of Days and Nights, 1935), Padma Nadir Majhi (The Boatman of River Padma, 1936), Putul Nacher Itikatha (The Puppet's Tale, 1936), Jiboner Jotilota (Complexities of Life, 1936), Ahimsa (Non-violence, 1941), Dhorabandha Jiban (Quotidian Life, 1941), Chatushkone (The Quadrilateral, 1942), Protibimbo (The Reflection, 1943), Darpan (The Mirror, 1945). He also wrote some poems but he is mostly known for his short stories and novels.
    •  The main theme of his stories and novels was the life of village people. His portrayal of characters in his novels and short stories were brilliant. 
    • He joined the Communist Party of India in 1944 and became an active Marxist.
    • From his early life he suffered from epilepsy. In 1956 he went to coma and died on 3rd December.

    Buddhist Councils: general knowlede, facts, history, gk

    In the history of Buddhism six Buddhist councils were convened. These councils were held under the patronage of different rulers and presided by different monks. The agenda of these councils were to preserve and spread Buddhism.

    List of Different Buddhist Councils

    Buddhist Councils Description
    First Buddhist Council Time: 400 BC
    Location: Sattapanni caves Rajgriha
    Patronage: King Ajatashatru
    Presided by: Monk Mahakasyapa
    Agenda: To preserve the sayings of Buddha and the monastic discipline or rules.
    Facts: It was held right after the death of Buddha. In this council Suttas were recited by Ananda, and the Vinaya was recited by Upali. Abhidhamma Pitaka was also recited.
    Second Buddhist Council Time: 383 BC
    Location: Vaishali
    Patronage: Kalasoka
    Presided by: Sabakami
    Agenda: To settle the disputes of different subgroups. Some subgroup (Mahasangikas) were in favor of relaxed monastic rules.
    Facts: Many people regard this council as historical. The council rejected the Mahasangikas.
    Third Buddhist Council Time: 250 BC
    Location: Patliputra
    Patronage: Ashoka
    Presided by: Moggaliputta Tissa
    Agenda: To analyze the different schools of Buddhism and to purify them.
    Facts: Ashoka sent many groups to different parts of countries to spread the Buddhism.
    Fourth Buddhist Council Time: 78 AD
    Location: Kashmir
    Patronage: Kanishka
    Presided by: Vasumitra & Asvaghosha
    Agenda: To preserve and remedy of different conflict
    Facts: From this council division of Buddhism occurred into Hinayana & Mahayana. Many people has doubt on authenticity of this council.
    Fifth Buddhist Council Time: 1871
    Location: Myanmar
    Patronage: King Mindon
    Presided by: Jagarabhivamsa, Narindabhidhaja, and Sumangalasami
    Agenda: To recite all the Buddhist teaching and examine them in minute details
    Facts: This council is generally not recognized outside of Myanmar
    Sixth Buddhist Council Time: 1954
    Location: Kaba Aye in Yangon, Burma
    Patronage: prime Minister U. Nu
    Presided by: Mahasi Sayadaw and Bhadanta Vicittasarabhivamsa. Beside them, many monks and scholars joined this council.
    Agenda: To affirm and preserve the genuine Dhamma and Vinaya
    Facts: For this council, a special Maha Passana Guha was constructed which was similar to the guha where the first Buddhist council was constructed.

    Chola Dynasty: history, facts, information

    Chola Dynasty was one of the most powerful dynasties of south India. They ruled south India for a long time and united the whole south India.

    • The main area they ruled was the valley of the Kaveri River. In the peak of their time, the empire was extedded to the whole south india, sri lanka, maldives, Malaysia, Indonesia and to ganges in the east.
    • The source of information of chola dynasty are few. The main source of the information are the tamil literatures and different inscriptions- Sangam literature; Mahavamsa - a Buddhist text; Pillars of Ashoka; 
    • Chola dynasty is generally divided into four periods - Early Cholas, The interregnum, Medieval Cholas, Later Cholas. 
    • The rivers Kaveri  and Ponni had  very important place in their dynasty. Adiperukku festival was celebrated each year during the floods of rivers. Kaveripoompattinam and Nagappattinam were two famous ports. They were the center of trade and commerce.
    • For better ruling, the empire was divided into several provinces called Mandalams. They were also subdivided into Valanadus. Valanadus were further divided into Kottams. Kottams consists number of villages. Different authorities - ur, nadu, sabha, nagaram were there to collect tax and to maintain the accounts.
    •  They had a strong military. The army included war elephants, cavalry, navy. Elephants were used heavily in the land battles. They also had a very strong navy. It was one of the strongest navy of Asia at that time. Navy helped in the conquest of the Ceylon, Srivijaya.
    • Agriculture was the main profession of the people of Chola Dynasty. Silk Weaving was also a respectable job. Kanchipuram became a center of silk Weaving. Silk was exported in large quantity. Beside silk, Wootz steel, spices were also exported. They had a very high reputation in foreign trade. China and south-east Asia were the main foreign trade location. 
    • There were different guilds, community and caste in the chola period. Some of them are- Vellalar community (Courtiers, army officials), Ulavar community (associated with agriculture), Kaikolar community (Merchants, Weavers ).
    • For agriculture, many canals and large water tanks were created - Uyyakondan canal, Rajendran vaykkal, Sembian Mahadegvi vaykkal. Solagangam tank was recognized as liquid pillar of victory.
    • Chola Dynasty had enriched the Tamil literature, art and architecture like no other dynasties. The temples build during this dynasty are one of the finest art. The temple of Gangaikondacholisvaram and the Airavatesvara Temple at Darasuram were declared World Heritage Sites by the UNESCO. The sculptures and bronzes were also remarkable- Nataraja the Divine Dancer is one of the finest art.
    • Tamil literature flourished greatly during this dynasty. Some of the masterpieces were- Ottakuttan's Kulothunga Cholan Ula, Kamban's Kambaramayanam, Jayamkondar's Kalingattuparani etc. Nannul a work on Tamil grammer during the Chola dynasty is still relevant.
    •  With the rise of Pandyan Dynasty the Chola dynasty started to decline and later it became the reason of its downfall.

    Indian Dances: facts, information, general knowledge

    India has a very rich culture of dance and music. From the ancient times, different dance forms are practiced in India. Indian dances were originated to praise the gods and has a significant influence of mythology, legends, and literature.

    • Indian dances are generally categorized as classical dances and folk dances. Besides that semi classical and tribal dance forms are also recognized. Indian contemporary dances are the fusion and experimentation of different dance forms including Western forms.
    • Sangeet Natak Akademi recognizes 8 dance forms as classical - Bharatanatyam, Kathak, Kuchipudi, Odissi, Kathakali, Sattriya, Manipuri and Mohiniyattam. Culture Ministry of India recognizes Chhau as also classical dance besides those eight.
    • The dance forms which are traceable to the ancient classical texts, specially Natya Shastra are called classical dances. While Folk dances are the ones which are passed through word of mouth from generation to generation. 
    • Natya Shastra is one of the most ancient text on dance. It is attributed to the sage Bharata. It consists 36 chapters and 6000 verses. It is dated back to 200 BCE and 200CE.

    Origin of Classical Dances of India

    Dances States
    Bharatanatyam Tamilnadu
    Kathakali Kerala
    Kathak North India
    Kuchipudi Andhra Pradesh
    Odissi Odisha
    Sattriya Assam
    Manipuri Manipur
    Mohiniyattam  Kerala

    Some other dance Forms

    Dances States
    Bidesha Bihar
    Bhangra Punjab
    Chau West Bengal
    Bihu Assam
    Garba Gujarat
    Ghumar Rajasthan
    Gidda Punjab
    Lavni Maharashtra
    Lota Madhya Pradesh
    Rouf Jammu and Kashmir
    Nautanki Uttar Pradesh
    Swang Haryana
    Tamasha Maharashtra
    Yakshangana Karnataka
    Chholiya Uttarakhand

    Sri Aurobindo: facts, biography, information

    Sri Aurobindo was an Indian freedom fighter who later turned into a yogi, guru. He also wrote many books and poem.
    aurobindo
    Sri Aurobindo 1972-1950
    • He was born on 15th August, 1872 in Calcutta. His father was Krishna Dhun Ghose and his mother was Swarnalata Devi. They had five children. Aurobindo was the third child. His maternal grandfather Shri Rajnarayan Bose was a very prestigious person. His father was a member of Brahmo Samaj and used to think British Culture as superior.
    • He studied from Loreto House boarding school in Darjeeling. His father’s wish was to enter his children into Indian Civil Service Organization. For that they needed to study in England. In 1879, the whole family moved to England. Aurobindo and his brothers were placed under the care of W. H. Drewett, a friend of his father. Under the Drewetts care, he learned Latin, grammar, history. Later he joined St Paul's School and after that was admitted to the King’s college, Cambridge. He successfully cleared the ICS entrance examination but purposefully got himself disqualified in the practical examination as he had no interest in ICS.
    • With the help of his father’s friend, he got a place in Baroda State Service. He moved to Baroda in 1893. During his stay in Baroda, he became interested in the India’s independence movement. He started to communicate with different rebellion group of Bengal. He also started writing articles in different magazines. In 1906, he moved to Bengal. He helped to establish many youth clubs for the independence movement. One of the youth club was Anushilan Samiti. He travelled a lot to get support for the nationalist movement.
    • In 1908, he was arrested in the connection of Alipore Bomb Case. After a year, he was acquitted. During this time, his life got changed. He started to see the life differently. He started practicing yoga and meditation. He distanced himself from the politics and later moved to Pondicherry in 1910.
    • In Pondicherry, he started a magazine called Arya. He started publishing different spiritual articles on Gita and Vedas. Later these articles were revised and published as books- Essays on The Gita, The Secret of The Veda, Hymns to the Mystic Fire, The Synthesis of Yoga.
    • With the increase of followers, in 1926 they established the Sri Aurobindo Ashram. Aurobindo’s close aid was Mirra Richard, also known as The Mother. After the death of Aurobindo, she took the responsibility of the ashram.
    • One of his famous poem was Savitri. It was an epic poem of 24,000 lines.
    • He was nominated for the Nobel Peace prize in 1950 and Nobel prize for Literature in 1943.
    • He took his last breath on December 5, 1950.

    List of Presidents of India: facts, information, gk

    Indian President is the head of state of India. President of India is elected  indirectly by people of India through the elected members of Both the houses of Parliament and members of Legislative Assembly of states and Union Territories. Here is the list of presidents of India after the independence of India.

    List of Indian Presidents

    Presidents of India Description
    Dr.Rajendra Prasad (1884-1963)
    From 01/26/50 to 05/13/62
    First president of India
    Only Indian president who served twice
    He was the longest serving president of India
    Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (1888-1975)
    From 05/13/62 to 05/13/67
    First Vice President of India
    First president from south India
    Won Bharat Ratna in 1954
    His Birthday is celebrated as Teachers Day on 5th September
    Zakir Hussain (1897-1969)
    From 05/13/67 to 05/03/69
    First Muslim President of India
    He was the first president who dies in office
    He was also the shortest serving president of India
    Zakir Hussain co founded the jamia Milia Islamia.
    He was awarded Bharat Ratna in 1963

    Varahagiri Venkata Giri (1894-1980)
    From 05/03/69 to 07/20/69
    After the uncertain death of Zakir Hussain, he was elected as acting president.
    He was the shortest serving vice president.
    Sometimes, he was also called as Rubber Stamp President of India.
    He was conferred Bharat Ratna in 1975
     Muhammad Hidayatullah (1905-1992)
    From 07/20/69 to 08/24/69
     He was a eminent jurist, scholar and educationist.
    He had also served as Chief Justice of India and as Vice President of India
    Varahagiri Venkata Giri (1894-1980)
    From 08/24/69 to 08/24/74
    He was the first president who has served as Acting President.
     Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed (1905-1977)
    From 08/24/74 to 02/11/77
    He was a lawyer and second president to die in office
     Basappa Danappa Jatti (1912-2002)
    From 02/11/77 to 07/25/77
    He also served as the acting president after the death of F A Ahmed
    Neelam Sanjiva Reddy (1913-1996)
    From 07/25/77 to 07/25/82
    He was the first Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh
    He was the youngest President of India
    He was also elected as the speaker of lok sabha for twice before he became president.
    Giani Zail Singh (1916-1994)
    From 07/25/82 to 07/25/87
    He was the president when the anti Sikh riot of 1984 occurred.
    In his tenure, Operation bluestar and assassination of Indira Gandhi occurred.
    Ramaswamy Venkataraman (1910-2009)
    From 07/25/87 to 07/25/92
    He was a lawyer and an activist during the Independence movement of india
    Shankar Dayal Sharma (1918-1999)
    From 07/25/92 to 07/25/97
    He also served as Chief Minister of Bhopal and Vice President of India
    Kocheril Raman Narayanan (1920-2005)
    From 07/25/97 to 07/25/02
    He was the first Dalit President of India.
    A.P.J. Abdul Kalam (1931-2015)
    From 07/25/02 to 07/25/07
    He was a scientist and helped in development of ballistic missile and launch vehicle. He was also called the Missile man of India
    He is popularly called as People's President.
    In 1997 he was awarded with Bharat Ratna
    Smt. Pratibha Patil (1934-Alive)
    From 07/25/07 to 07/25/12
    She is the first woman president of India
    Pranab Mukherjee (1935-Alive)
    From 07/25/12 onwards
    He is associated with the indian politics for a long time. He held many cabinet portfolios - Defence, Finance, External Affairs.

    Important Lakes of India: facts, information, general knowledge

    India is the home of many beautiful and diverse type of lakes. It has glacier lakes in Himalaya, tectonic lakes in Kashmir, lagoons along the sea cost, oxbow lakes in ganga plains etc.

    List of Important Indian Lakes

    Lake Description
    Pulicat Situated in Andhra Pradesh
    It is the second largest brakish water lake of India
    Sriharikota island separates this lake from Bay of Bengal. Sriharikota is the home of Satish Dhawan Space Centre
    Kanwar It is situated in Bihar
    It is Asia’s largest fresh water oxbow lake
    Chilika It is situated in Odisha
    Worlds second and India’s largest coastal lagoon.
    Place for migrating birds in winter.
    Dhebar Situated in Rajasthan
    It is India’s second largest artificial lake
    Sambhar It is in Rajasthan
    It is the India’s largest inland salt water lake
    It is the most saline lake of India
    Vembanad Kayal Located in Kerala
    It is the longest lake of India
    It is the largest lake of Kerala
    Lonar It is situated in Maharashtra
    The impact of a Meteor created it
    Kolleru It is in Andhra Pradesh
    It is between the Krishna and Godavari Delta
    It is one of the largest fresh water lake of India
    Wular Located in Jammu and Kashmir
    It is the largest fresh water lake of India
    It was created by Tectonic activity and fed by river Jhelum
    Dal lake It is situated in Srinagar
    Asia’s largest tulip garden is in the banks of this lake.
    This lake is also known as Srinagar’s Jewel
    Loktak It is in Manipur
    It is the largest fresh water lake of North East India
    Keibul Lamjao, the only floating National Park of World, floats over it
    Nal Sarovar Lake Located in Gujarat
    It is the home of Largest bird sanctuary of India
    Roop Kund Located in Uttarakhand
    It has a very special place for the Hindu devotees. It is also known as Skeleton Lake

    National Symbols of India: facts, information, general knowledge

    National Flag of India

    • “Tiranga” or “Tricolour” is the National flag of India. It was adopted as national flag of India on 22 July 1947 by constituent assembly.
    • Pingali Venkayya was the designer of Indian National flag. The ratio of width to length of the flag is 2:3.
    • The colors of the national flag represents some meaning. The saffron color of the flag stands for courage, Sacrifice and spirit of Renunciation; White stands for Truth and Purity; Green stands for faith and fertility; Ashok chakra represents the wheel of law. It has 24 spokes.

    National Emblem of India

    • Lion Capital adopted from Ashok stambh (pillar) of Sarnath is the national emblem of India. It was adopted as the national emblem of India on 26 January 1950.
    • King Ashoka build this stambhs during his reign to popularize Buddha dharma.
    • In Ashok Stambh four lions are depicted as seated back to back. They represent power, courage, confidence, and pride.
    • Ashok Chakra of National Flag was taken from the Dharam Chakra depicted in the Ashok Stambh.
    • The words "Satyamev Jayate" are also inscribed in this Stambha.

    National Anthem of India

    • Jana Gana Mana is the National Anthem of India.On 24 January 1950, It was adopted as the national anthem of India.
    • It was written by Noble Laureate Rabindranath Tagore. It is the first five stanzas of Brahma Hymn.
    • The Original poem was written in Bengali. It was translated to Hindi by Abid Ali.
    • Jana Gana Mana was first sung on 27 December 1911 in the Calcutta Session of the Indian National Congress.

    National Song of India

    • In 1950, the first two verse of the song Vande Matram was selected as the National Song of India.
    • The song was written by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay in his noble Anandamath. Jadunath Bhattacharya composed the music.
    • In 1986, Rabindranath Tagore sung the song for the first time in the Session of Indian National Congress. This song was used heavily in the Independence Movement of India.

    National Calendar of India

    • Saka Calendar is the national calendar of India. In the year 1957, It was adopted as the national calendar of India.

    National Flower of India

    •  Lotus is the national flower of India

    National Bird of India

    • Peacok is the national bird of India. In 1964, peacock was declared as the national bird of India. It is protected by the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.

    National Animal of India

    • Tiger is the national animal of India. To protect the tigers in India, Project Tiger was launched in 1973.

    National Fruit of India

    • Mango is the national fruit of India.

    National Tree of India

    • Banyan is the national tree of India.

    P C Mahalanobis : facts, biography, information

    P C Mahalanobis or Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis was an Indian scientist and statistician. He is well known for the Mahalanobis distance, a statistical measure formulated by him.
    p c mahalanobis
    P C Mahalanobis 1893-1972
    • PC Mahalanobis was born on June 29, 1893 in Calcutta. He was born in a family of intellectuals.
    • His father Prabodh Chandra Mahalanobis was a professor of Presidency College. His mother was Nirodbasini. His grandfather Gurucharan was an active social reformer. Gurucharan was actively involved with Brahmo Samaj. 
    • PC Mahalanobis completed his schooling from Brahmo Boys School and joined Presidency College. He completed his Bachelors of Science degree in Physics in 1912. Later in 1913, he joined the Kings College of University of Cambridge.
    • During his stay in England, he developed a great interest in Statistics. He found that the statistics can be applied in the problems of meteorology and anthropology.
    • After completing his education, he worked with C. T. R. Wilson at the Cavendish Laboratory and later as a professor of physics in Presidency University.
    • In Presidency, he started a group for the people interested in statistics. Later this group started to grow and eventually turned into Indian Statistical Institute. ISI was registered in 1932. In 1933, they started the journal Sankhya.
    • Under his leadership ISI grew to a great extent. In 1959, ISI was declared as an institute of national importance and a deemed university.
    • His major contribution to statistics was Mahalanobis distance. Which he discovered during the studies of anthropometric measurements of Anglo-Indians in Calcutta.
    • He was the pioneer of pilot surveys. His contribution in large scale survey is immense. Between 1937 to 1944, he conducted many large scale surveys.
    • After the independence of India, he established the Central Statistical Organization to coordinate statistical activities in India. He was also the member of second planning commission which helped in rapid industrialization of India.
    • He was honored with many prestigious awards- Padma Vibhushan (1968); Weldon Memorial Prize from the University of Oxford (1944); Fellow of the Royal Society, London (1945). In 2006, Indian Government declared the 29th June as National Statistical Day to celebrate the birthday of P C Mahalanobis.
    • On 28 June 1972, he took his last breath.

    Timeline of P C Mahalanobis

    1893 He was Born in Calcutta
    1908 Completed his schooling
    1912 Graduated from Presidency College
    1913 Joined the Cambridge University
    1923 Married to Nirmalkumari
    1932 Established the ISI
    1936 Mahalanobis distance introduced
    1944 Weldon Medel from Oxford
    1945 Fellow of Royal Society of London
    1948 Retired from the Presidency College
    1951 Established the Central Statistical Institute
    1953 Member of Planning Commission
    1968 Padma Vibhushan
    1972 Took last breath

    Overview of ISRO : facts, information, general knowledge

    ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization) is a Space Research Organization of Government of India. It is located in Bengaluru.
    • ISRO was established in 1969 by replacing Indian national committee for space research (INCOSPAR) which was established in 1962.
    • ISRO is managed by department of space which falls under Prime Minister of India.
    • Vikram Sarabhai also known as father of Indian space program was the first Chairman of ISRO. It was his effort which helped to establish ISRO.
    • On 28 September 1992, Antrix corporation was established. It is a commercial arm of ISRO which promotes services and products of ISRO.
    • The first satellite developed by ISRO was Aryabhata. Aryabhata was launched was by Soviet Union on 19 April 1975. The first satellite developed and launched by India was Rohini satellite.
    • ISRO has developed many satellite launch vehicles. The satellite launch vehicles in order of  their creation are SLV (Satellite launch Vehicle), ASLV (Augmented Satellite launch Vehicle), PSLV (Polar Satellite launch Vehicle), GSLV (Geosynchronous Satellite launch Vehicle), GSLV Mark III. PSLV is one of the most trusted satellite launch vehicle of world.
      Organization Structure of ISRO

    Timeline of ISRO 

    1962 INCOSPAR was established
    1969 ISRO was formed superseding INCOSPAR
    1971 Satish Dhawan Space Centre formed in Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh.
    1972 DoS was established. ISRO was brought under DoS
    1975 First Indian satellite, Aryabhata was launched
    1980 Rohini satellite was successfully placed by indigenous launch vehicle SLV 3
    1992 First successful launch of ASLV placing SROSS-C satellite, Antrix was formed
    1994 First successful launch of PSLV placed IRS-P2 in orbit
    1999 Carried foreign satellites for the first time. Multiple satellites were launched for the first time
    2001 First successful launch of GSLV with GSAT-1 satellite
    2005 Second launch pad at Sriharikota
    2008 Launch of Chandrayaan-1. Launch of 10 satellites by a single PSLV
    2009 First satellite (ANUSAT)from an Indian university (Anna University) was launched
    2013 MOM (Mangalayaan) was launched
    2014 Mangalayaan was successfully placed in Mars orbit
    2016 Created a record by placing 20 satellites in a single payload