Political Geography of India: facts, info

After the independence of India in 1947, the process of creating different states and defining the boundaries were started. On 26 January, 1950 the Republic of India was born. At that time the states were classified into four classes- States under the Governor, States under the Rajpramukh, States under the chief commissioner, Union Territory.

  • In 1956, States Reorganization Act was passed. According to the Act 14 Indian states and 6 Union Territories were created. The states were created on the basis of language.
  • In 1960, Bombay state was divided into two parts and Maharashtra, Gujarat were created.
  • In 1966, Punjab was divided and two states Punjab and Haryana were born.
  • In 2000, Madhya Pradesh was divided into Madhya Pradesh and Chhatishgarh; Uttar Pradesh was divided into Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand; Bihas was divided into Bihar and Jharkhand.
  • After the states reorganization act of 1956, the process of creating new states had been continued. Till now India has 29 states, 6 union Territories, 1 National Capital Territory.
  • The newly created state is Telangana. It is created on 2 June, 2014.
  • Delhi was declared as National Capital Territory of India in 1993. Before that Delhi was Union Territory.
  • India shares its land boundaries with Bangladesh (4096 KM), Bhutan (699 KM), Myanmar (1643 Km), China (4057 KM), Nepal (1751 KM), Pakistan (3323 KM). India has the largest land boundaries with Bangladesh.
  • LAC (Line of Actual Control) is the effective border between India and China. LOC (Line of Control) is the informal border between India and Pakistan.

Important borderlines of India with its neighbor countries

Border Lines Info
LOC (Line of Control) This is a military control line of India and Pakistan in Jammu and Kashmir. This is also called Cease-fire Line.
McMahon Line It is the boundary line between northeastern India and China. Though it is disputed by Chinese government
LAC (Line of Actual Control) It is the border line between China and India in the western side. Sometimes LAC is called as boundary line of India and China in east and west (together with McMohan line and LAC of west).
Radcliffe Line It is the boundary line between India and Pakistan. It was drawn after the independence of India and Pakistan. It separates the both west and east (Now Bangladesh) Pakistan.
Palk Strait It is water body which separates the India and Sri Lanka.
Chicken’s Neck or Siliguri Corridor
It is a narrow region of Indian state West Bengal which connects the north-eastern states to rest of India. Neighbor countries Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh surround this region. This region is politically very sensitive due to its proximity to different international borders.
Akhnoor Dagger
It is a narrow strip of Pakistani territory which extends into the Indian state Jammu and Kashmir. This is a very sensitive land as it can effect movement of army in the area very much.

New states formed after 1950

New States Year Origin
Andhra Pradesh 1953 State of Madras
Gujarat 1960 State of Mumbai
Maharashtra 1960 State of Mumbai
Kerala 1956 Travancore-Cochin, the Malabar district of Madras State, and the Kasaragod taluk of Dakshina Kannada.
Karnataka 1973 State of Mysuru
Nagaland 1952 State of Asom
Haryana 1966 State of Punjab
Meghalaya 1971 State of Asom
Himachal Pradesh 1971 Union Territory of Himachal Pradesh
Manipura 1971 Union Territory of Manipura
Tripura 1971 Union Territory of Tripura
Sikkim 1975 From Associate state to full state
Mizoram 1986 Union Territory
Arunachal Pradesh 1986 Union Territory
Chhattisgarh 2000 Madhya Pradesh
Uttarakhand 2000 Uttar Pradesh
Jharkhand 2000 Bihar
Telangana 2014 Andhra Pradesh
Goa 1987 Union Territory