Indian Geography : Facts and information about Geography of India

India is a Asian country located North side of Equator. It is a large and populated country. Area wise it ranks seventh in the world and population wise it is the second most populous country of the world.

Position of India:
  • The co-ordinate of India is 21⁰ N and 78⁰ E.
  • India is surrounded by China, Nepal, Bhutan in north; Myanmar, Bangladesh in east, Sri Lanka in south; Pakistan in west.
  • Three oceans protects India’s half of the boundary. In east- Bay of Bengal; In south-Indian Ocean; In west- Arabian Sea
Physical Geography of India:
  • Himalaya, Eastern Ghats, Western Ghats, Vindhya, Satpura, Aravalli ranges are the main mountain ranges of India
  • Kanchenjunga is the highest mountain peak of India.
  • Deccan Plateau is the largest plateau of India and the Ladakh plateau is the highest plateau of India.
  • Andaman is the largest island of India and Majuli is the largest river island of world located in Assam, India.
  • India has only one dessert which is the Thar dessert. It is located in the state Rajasthan.
Rivers of India:
  • Ganges is the longest river of India. Its length is 2525 Km and about 2010 Km of its length is flown from India.
  • Indian rivers are classified into- North Indian Rivers (Ganges, Indus, Brahmaputra, Luni) and South Indian Rivers (Krishna, Kaveri, Godavari, Narmada).
  • Ganges is the main river of North India and Godavari is the main river of South India.
Political Geography of India:
  • India is divided into 29 states, 6 union territories, 1 national capital territory.
  • Rajasthan is the largest state of India followed by Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, UP.
  • UP is the most populous state of India followed by Maharashtra, Bihar, and West Bengal.
Indian Agriculture:
  • Half of the population of India is connected with the agriculture.
  • Main corps produced in India are- Rice, Wheat, Jute, Cotton, Tea, Coffee, Jowar, Bajra, Ragi.
  • India is the second most rice producer of world and fourth most wheat producer of world

Political Geography of India: facts, info

After the independence of India in 1947, the process of creating different states and defining the boundaries were started. On 26 January, 1950 the Republic of India was born. At that time the states were classified into four classes- States under the Governor, States under the Rajpramukh, States under the chief commissioner, Union Territory.

  • In 1956, States Reorganization Act was passed. According to the Act 14 Indian states and 6 Union Territories were created. The states were created on the basis of language.
  • In 1960, Bombay state was divided into two parts and Maharashtra, Gujarat were created.
  • In 1966, Punjab was divided and two states Punjab and Haryana were born.
  • In 2000, Madhya Pradesh was divided into Madhya Pradesh and Chhatishgarh; Uttar Pradesh was divided into Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand; Bihas was divided into Bihar and Jharkhand.
  • After the states reorganization act of 1956, the process of creating new states had been continued. Till now India has 29 states, 6 union Territories, 1 National Capital Territory.
  • The newly created state is Telangana. It is created on 2 June, 2014.
  • Delhi was declared as National Capital Territory of India in 1993. Before that Delhi was Union Territory.
  • India shares its land boundaries with Bangladesh (4096 KM), Bhutan (699 KM), Myanmar (1643 Km), China (4057 KM), Nepal (1751 KM), Pakistan (3323 KM).
  • LAC (Line of Actual Control) is the effective border between India and China. LOC (Line of Control) is the informal border between India and Pakistan.

Facts and information about IRCTC

IRCTC (Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation) is a part of Indian Railway which provides its services through its website. The services provided by IRCTC are- Online Ticketing, Tourism, and Catering (In some specific trains).

  • IRCTC was started on 27th September 1999. From then it has expanded its operation and now plays a critical role in the growth of Indian Railway.
  • It is one of the biggest e-commerce portal of India and a key revenue source of Indian Railway. Its revenue is more than the famous e-commerce site flipkart.
  • Till 2013, it had about six lakh registered users. About five lakh booking are occurring on daily basis.
  • Besides online ticketing, it also organizes different package tours. Some of the packages are- Palace on Wheels, Bharat Darshan, and Golden Chariot etc. 
  • IRCTC’s headquarter is located in New Delhi. Besides this, five zonal offices of IRCTC’s are located in – Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai, Secunderabad.
  • It received many awards. In 2009, it was declared as the Most Innovative project Award by PC quest. It won website of the year India award in 2014 and in 2008 won National Tourism Award.

Geographical Position of India: information, location, gk

India is a south Asian country. It is located in the northern hemisphere. India’s co ordinate is 21 Degree North, 78 Degree East.

India and its location
  • India is a large country with area 3,287,264 square kilometer. Area wise it is the seventh largest country of world.
  • India is positioned between the latitudes 8⁰4’ N and 37⁰6’ N. It is positioned between the longitudes 68⁰7’ E and 97⁰25’ E.
  • The southernmost point of India is the Indira point located in the great Nicobar Island. The west extreme point of India is the Guhar Moti located in Kutch, Gujarat. Other two extreme points are in territory disputes between India and China.
  • The lowest point of India is Kuttanad (-2.2 M) located in Kerala and the highest point is Kanchenjunga (8,856 M).
  • India is surrounded by many neighbor countries. In the north- China, Bhutan, Nepal; In the East- Myanmar (Burma), Bangladesh; In South- Sri Lanka; In North West- Afghanistan.
  • The three sides of India are surrounded by oceans. In East- Bay of Bengal; In West- Arabian Sea; In South- Indian Ocean.

Facts and biography of R K Narayan

R K Narayan was a famous Indian writer. He is famous for his novels like- The Guide, Swami and Friends, The English Teacher etc.

R K Narayan (1906-2001)
  • He was born on 10 October, 1906 in Chennai. His full name is Rasipuram Krishnaswami Iyer Narayanaswami. His family members used to call him Kunjappa.
  • His father was school headmaster. He spent his childhood with maternal grandmother Parvati. He married to Rajam. They had a daughter Hema. His brother was R K Laxman.
  • He studied at Lutheran Mission School and CRC High School. He obtained hid bachelors degree from the University of Mysore.
  • From childhood, he had interest in reading books. He used to read a lot of books and gradually started writing.
  • He started his career as a school teacher. Later, he left the job to become a writer.
  • His first novel was Swami and Friends. In this novel he created the famous town “Malgudi”. His many writings are based in this town. Initially, he had to face problems in publishing novels. In 1935, his novel Swami and Friends was published with the help of Graham Greene. In the subsequent years, The Bachelor of Arts, The Dark Room novels were published.
  • In 1939, his wife Rajam died of typhoid. Her dead left a deep affect on R K Narayan. During this time he wrote the novel- The English Teacher.
  • He also started his own publishing company- Indian Thought Publications. He was successful with this publication.
  • R K Narayan’s some of the novels are-Mr. Sampath, The Financial Expert, Waiting for the Mahatma, The Guide, My Dateless Diary, The Man Eater of Malgudi, Gods Demons and Others, The Vendor of Sweets, The Ramayana, The painter of Signs, The Mahabharata, Grandmothers Tale. His many of the books content are taken from his own life.
  • He won many awards such as- Sahitya Academy Award, Padma Bhushan, Padma Vibhushan and A C Bensen Medal. He was also nominated to the Rajya Sabha in 1989.
  • He died on 13 May, 2001.

Indian Agriculture : facts, information

About 50 percent people of India are dependent on agriculture for their daily expenses. Almost every type of food grains are produced by Indian farmers.

Indian Field
  • India ranks second in agricultural output and India is in top five positions for about 80 percent of products produced from farm.
  • The main food grain of India is rice. India ranks second worldwide in rice production. West Bengal is the top state in rice production followed by Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, and Bihar. Yield wise, Tamilnadu ranks first in rice production. Central rice research institute is located in Cuttack, Odisha.
  • India ranks fourth in wheat production. Uttar Pradesh is the highest wheat producing state of India followed by Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, and Haryana.
  • Some of the millets produced in India are Bajra, Jowar, Ragi. Maharashtra is the highest Jowar producer in India. In Bajra production Rajasthan and in Ragi production Karnataka ranks first.
  • India is the second most tea producing country and in India Assam is the most tea producing state. Karnataka is the highest coffee producing state.
  • Sugarcane is one of the main crops produced by India. Uttar Pradesh is the key state in producing sugarcane. Central research centre for sugarcane in located in Lucknow.
  • Cotton and Jute are the main fiber crops produced in India. Maharashtra is the largest producer of cotton and West Bengal is the largest producer of Jute.
    Vintage Photograph of Indian Farming

Physical Geography of India : facts, information

India has all the physiogeographic features one may expect. It has Himalaya like mountain, Thar like desert, Coastal area, Ladakh like plateau. India can be divided into following regions- 1) the great Mountain of North 2) Indo-Gangetic Plain 3) The coastal Plains 4) The Peninsular Plateau 5) Islands

  • Himalaya is the main mountain of north. It is a folded mountain. It is about 2,500 KM long and has a width of 150-500 KM. Before the Himalaya Tethys ocean was there. India’s highest mountain peak is Kanchenjunga (8,586 m).
  • Ladakh Plateau is the highest plateau of India. It is located in Kashmir. Another important plateau of India is the Deccan Plateau. It covers almost entire southern part of India.
  • Aravalli Mountain is the oldest mountain of India. Guru Shikhar is the highest mountain peak of Aravalli. It is an eroded stub of ancient folded mountain.
  • India’s only desert “Thar” is located in Rajasthan. Luni is the only river which flow in this desert. Thar Desert is also known as ‘The great Indian Desert’ or ‘Marusthali’.
  • Vindhya Range is the main range of central India. It acts as a divider between the North India and South India. Satpura range lies parallel to the Vindhya Range. Satpura is a dome mountain.
  • Eastern Ghats and Western Ghats are two mountain ranges lies to the eastern coast and western coast of India. Deccan plateau lies between these two ranges. Anamudi is the highest peak of south India. It belongs to the Alaimalai Hills of Western Ghat Range.
  • India’s famous coast’s are- Konkan Coast, Coromandel Coast, Malabar Coast. The total length of Indian coast (Including the coast of India’s islands) is 7,517 KM.
  • India has about thousand islands. Among these Andaman, Nicobar, islands are well known. Barren Island is the only active volcano of India.

Meghnad Saha : Facts, Biography, Infromation

Meghnad Saha was an Indian astrophysicist. He is famous for discovering the Saha equation or the ionization formula.

Meghnad Saha (1893-1956)
  • He was born on October 6, 1893 in Sheoratali of Dhaka, in non independent India.
  • His father was Jagannath Saha and his mother was Bhubaneshwari Devi. He was the fifth son of them. Jagannath Saha had a small grocery store in the village. Being born in a poor family, he had to face a lot of problems.
  • He had done his schooling form Dhaka Collgiate school. Then he took admission in Dhaka College and later in Presidency College, Kolkata.
  • In his life, He had the opportunity to have his teachers like Jagadish Chandra Bose, Prafulla Chandra Ray. Famous scientist Satyandranath Bose was his class fellow.
  • In 1917, he joined University College of Science in Calcutta as a lecturer. During this time he formulates the Saha Equation. Later he went to the Imperial College of London.
  • He helped to establish many renowned institutions in India such as- Institute of Nuclear Physics in Calcutta, Physical Department in Allahabad University. He put a lot of effort to start research in Nuclear Physics in India.
  • He also had interest in government works and political affairs. He stood as a candidate in 1952 election and won.
  • He died on 16 February, 1956.

Interesting facts and information about Indian city Mumbai

Mumbai is the capital of Indian state Maharashtra. It is the center of entertainment, commerce and finance of India. It is one of the oldest cities of India.

  • The name Mumbai is originated from the name of goddess Mumbadevi. The name Mumbai was adapted in November 1995. Throughout the history it was called by different names such as- Kakamuchee, Galajunkja, Bombaim, Boon Bay, Bambaye, Bombeye, Bombay.
  • Mumbai is build on seven islands- Parel, Colaba, Worli, Bambay Island, Little Colaba, Mahim, Mazagoan.
  • It is the commercial capital of India. About five fortune global companies are located in Mumbai and numerous conglomerates are also located here.
  • The maximum annual rainfall was recorded in 1954 and the highest rainfall in a day was recorded on 26 July 2005. The highest temperature 40.2 Degree Centigrade was recorded on 28 March 1982 and the lowest temperature 7.4 Degree Centigrade was recorded on 27 January 1962. 
  • It is also called financial capital of India. RBI, SEBI, BSE, NSE are also present In Mumbai.
  • India’s most of the billionaire lives in Mumbai. Forbes Magazine listed Mumbai in the seventh position in the list of Top ten cities for Billionaires.
  • Mumbai is represented by six parliamentary constituencies and 36 assembly constituencies.
  • The local trains are the main medium of Transportation. About two billion passengers travel per year through local trains.
  • Water is supplied in Mumbai from six lakes. Asia’s largest water filtration plant is located in Bhandup.
  • Asia’s second largest slum Dharavi is also located in Mumbai.
  • Mumbai is also the entertainment capital of India. Hindi and Marathi film industry is also based in Mumbai.

Quick Facts about Mumbai

DesignationCapital of Maharashtra
Other NamesFinancial capital of India, Entertainment capital of India, Dream city
Co-ordinates18⁰58’N, 72⁰49’ E
LanguagesMarathi, Hindi, English
Area4355 Square Kilometers
Places to VisitMarine Drive, Siddhi Vinayak, Iskcon Temple, Nariman Point, Juhu Beach, Elephanta Caves, Film City, Kanheri Caves, Gateway of India, Hanging Garden, Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Haji Ali Dargah, Mumba Devi Temple
Street FoodsVada Pav, Kebabs, Pani Puri, Bhel Puri, Gola, Channa Bhatara, Ragda Pattice
FestivalsGanesh Chaturthi, Diwali, Gudhi Padava, Holi, Dussera, Moharram

Facts and Information about Indian Food

A wide variety of food items are consumed by the people of India. Each states of India have its own special type of food items.

Indian Food
  • The main grains consumed by Indian are rice and wheat. In the world, India ranks second in the rice production and fourth in the wheat production. In Manipur, a special type of rice ChakhaoAmubi (also known as black rice) is produced.
  • India is famous for its spices. A variety of spices and herbs are used by the people of India. Spices are part of Indian food from the Vedic period. Every year large amount of spices are export from India. 
  • States, Culture, Religion are the main factors which affects the diet of Indian.
  • Indian food has mainly six type of flavors’ - Salty, Sour, Sweet, Bitter, Astringent, Spicy. Indian foods are also classified into three categories- Saatvic, Raajsic, Taamsic.
  • The oil used in cooking also varies across the India- Mustard oil is used in Eastern India, Coconut oil is used in Western Coast (Kerala), and Sesame oil is used in Southern India, Peanut oil is used in North and West.
  • Though the cold drinks are consumed in large amount, Some Indian drinks are equally consumed such as- Lemon Water, Coconut Water, and Sugarcane Juice.
  • Dairy products are also popular and used by most of the people of India.
  • Some of the popular leaves used in Indian food for flavoring are- Bay leaves (Tej Pata), Coriander leaves, Curry leaves, Mint leaves.

Srinivasa Ramanujan:facts,biography,information

Srinivasa Ramanujan is a renowned Indian mathematician. He made great contributions to number theory, continued fractions and infinite series.

Srinivasa Ramanujan
Srinivasa Ramanujan(1887-1920)
  • He was born on 22, December 1887 in a village of Tamilnadu (Erode).
  • His father was K. Srinivasa Iyengar, a clerk in a sari shop and his mother Komalatammal was a housewife. He married to Janakiammal.
  • He was brought up in a traditional orthodox Brahmin family. He was a strict Vegetarian. He used to worship his family goddess, Mahalakshmi of Namakkal.
  • He got his taste in mathematics during his studies in Town high school of Kumbakonam. From the childhood, he showed his interest in mathematics. His life took a turn when he read the book “A Synopsis of Elementary Results in Pure and Applied Mathematics” which he had borrowed from his friend. He studied all the 5000 theorems contained in the book thoroughly.
  • He took admission in the Government Arts College, Kumbakonam. For his studies he got scholarship. But he was so much involved in mathematics that he neglected all the other subjects and lost his scholarship. Later he enrolled in the Pachaiyappa’s College. He faced the same problem there and left the college without any degree.
  • He faced many problems in his professional life and spent many days in poverty. In the beginning, he published his work in the Journal the Indian mathematical society. He also sent his work to many English mathematicians. But few showed interest. Among them he worked with professor G.H. Hardy and J.E. Littlewood. They invited him to the Cambridge. Initially he was reluctant but at last he left Madras in 1914. He spent about five years in England. There he published many papers with G.H. Hardy and J.E. Littlewood. He was elected a fellow of the royal society in 1918. In the same year he was elected a fellow of Trinity College.
  • He had difficulty in England as he was a strict vegetarian. As a result, health problems arose and he fall seriously ill. He returned to India in 1919. But it was too late and he died on April 26, 1920.
  • In December 2011, ’22 December’ (Birthday of Ramanujan) was declared as “National Mathematics Day”. A film on Ramanujan’s life is also made. TIFR has published his notebooks in two volume collector’s edition