Indian National Flag:facts,information,gk

Indian National flag (also referred as “Tiranga” or “Tricolour”) consists three bands of color (saffron at top, White at middle, Green at bottom) and a navy blue color ashok chakra (with 24 spokes) at middle.
indian flag
Indian Flag
  • Tricolour was adopted as Indian national flag on 22 July 1947 by constituent assembly.
  • Indian flag was designed by Pingali Venkayya. The ratio of width to length of the flag is 2:3. All the three color bands in the flag should be of equal length.  The saffron color of the flag stands for courage, Sacrifice and spirit of Renunciation; White stands for Truth and Purity; Green stands for faith and fertility; Ashok chakra represents the wheel of law.
  • There are many laws and protocols, according to which the flag should be used. Some of the laws are- Flag Code of India, 2002; The Emblems and Names (Prevention of Improper Use) Act, 1950; Prevention of Insults to National Honour Act, 1971. Before 2002, Private Citizens were not allowed to display Indian flag except on national days. After a PIL lodged by Naveen Jindal in court, a revision to the ‘flag code of India’ was introduced in 2002, which suppressed the restriction.
  • According to law, flag should be made of special Khadi cloth. Only Karnataka Khadi Gramodyoga Samyukta Sangha is licensed to produce and supply flag in India.

Indian State Odisha:facts, Information

Odisha is an Indian state located in the east coast of India. Currently Bhubaneswar is the capital of Odisha. Before 13 April 1948, Cuttack was the capital of it.
  • In history, Odisha was known as the Kalinga. The famous Kalinga war was fought here.
  • The English spelling of the state’s name was changed from “Orissa” to “Odisha” on 4 November, 2011.
  • Many famous temples are located in Odisha. Famous Jagannath temple (one of the char dhams of Hinduism) is also located here.
  • The Central Rice Research Institute (CRRI) is located in Cuttack. It is the largest rice research institute of Asia.
  • India’s largest coastal lake and world’s second largest lake Chilika Lake is situated in Odisha. Chilika Lake is the home of many migrating birds in winter.
  • It is also the home of famous dance form “Odissi”. Odissi is one of the oldest dance form of India.

TopicsInformation
CapitalBhubaneswar
Founded on1 April 1936
Population41,947,358 (Rank 11th)
Odisha Map
odisha map
Area155,820Sq. Km.(Rank 9th)
LanguagesOriya, Bangla, Hindi
Neighbor Indian States West Bengal, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh
Districts30 (Angul, Balangir, Balasore, Bargarh, Bhadrak, Boudh, Cuttack, Debagarh, Dhenkanal, Gajapati, Ganjam, Jagatsinghpur, Jajpur, Jharsuguda, Kandhamal, Kalahandi, Kendrapara, Keonjhar, Khordha, Koraput, Malkangiri, Mayurbhanj, Nabarangpur, Nayagarh, Nuapada, Puri, Rayagada, Sambalpur, Subarnapur, Sundargarh)
SymbolsAnimal: Sambar Deer, Bird: Indian Roller, Tree: ashwatha, Flower: ashoka
Major CitiesBhubaneswar,Cuttack, Brahmapur, Puri, Rourkela, and Sambalpur
Major RiversMahandi, Brahmani, Baitarani, Bahuda, Bansadhara, Subarnarekha, Indirabati
FestivalsRatha Yatra, Taratarini mela, Janmashtami, Nanda Utsav, Sitalshashti, Gamha Purnima
Major Tourist PlacesPuri, Konark Sun Temple, Chilika Lake, Puri Jagannath Temple, Similipal National Park, Nandan Kanan, Sapta Sajya, Duduma Waterfall

Indian president Pranav Mukherjee: facts, biography, information, life history

Pranav Mukherjee was a famous political leader of Indian national Congress. He is currently president of India.
  • He was born on 11 December, 1935 in a village of Birbhum, West Bengal.
    indian president pranav mukherjee
    Pranav Mukherjee
  • His father was Kamada kinker Mukherjee and mother was Rajlakshmi Mukherjee.Kamada kinker Mukherjee was a member of West Bengal Legislative Council. Pranav Mukherjee married to Subhra Mukherjee. They have  three children - Sharmistha,Abhijeet, Indrajeet.
  • He was a student of Suri Vidyasagar College. He has a M.A degree in Political Science. He also have degrees in history and law.
  • Before entering in politics, he worked as a upper-division clerk in the office of Deputy Accountant General. He also worked as a teacher at Vidyasagar college and as a journalist for "Desher  Dak ".
  • His political carrer started when Indira Gandhi recruited him for the Indian National Congress. He became a member of Rajya  Shabha in 1969.
  • In a few years after joining Congress, he became a powerful leader of Congress. He was a loyalist of Indira Gandhi. At that time he was the next powerful leader of Congress after Indira Gandhi. But after the death of Indira Gandhi, when Rajiv Gandhi was selected for the post of prime minister, he resigned Congress and founded Rashtriya Samajwadi Congress. Later in 1989, RSC and Congress merged together.
  • He has played different roles in his political career. But he was mostly known as the union minister of finance ministry. Other posts held by him were minister of revenue and banking, minister of commerce and steel and mine, cabinet minister of external affairs etc.
  • He became a leader in Lok Sabha for the first time in 2004. He won Lok Sabha seat from Jangipur,West Bengal.
  • In 2012,he retired from all the political activities when he was selected as the President of India. He is the 13th President of India.   

Interesting biographical facts about Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar

Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar also known as "father of research laboratories " was a renowned Indian scientist. The main area of his research were colloids, emulsions and industrial chemistry.
  • He was born on 21 February, 1894 in Bhera, Punjab ( presently in Pakistan ).
    shanti swarup bhatnagar
    Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar (1894-1955)
  • When he was eight years old,his father was died. He was brought up in his maternal grandfather's house. He got his interest in science from his grandfather, who was an engineer. In his childhood he spent his time building mechanical toys.
  • He joined the DAV High school, sikandarabad for his primary education. Later in 1911,he joined Dayal singh college, Lahore. He had B.sc degree in physics and M. Sc degree in chemistry. He completed his D. Sc degree from the London University.
  • After completing his education, he joined Banaras Hindu University as a professor. He with K. N. Mathur developed the " bhatnagar mathur magnetic interference balance ". These device was a powerful instrument to measure magnetic properties. Later it was manufactured by a British company. He transferred to Lahore as a professor of physical chemistry and director of university chemical laboratories of the Punjab university.
  • His work in the applied and industrial chemistry was notable. He solved many industrial problems. He was rewarded many times by the industrialists for solving there problems. But he didn't used the money for his personal benefit, he used it for strengthening the research facilities at universities.
  • After the independence of India, under the chairmanship of Dr. Bhatnagar CSIR ( council of scientific and industrial research ) was established. He became the first director general of CSIR. In his leadership 12 national laboratories (such as metallurgical lab at jamshedpur, central food processing technological institute at Mysore, national physical laboratory at new Delhi, national chemical laboratory at pune) were established.
  • Besides science, he also had interest in poetry. He wrote the kulgeet of the BHU. He also wrote a play called karamati.
  • In 1941,he was knighted for his contribution in science. In 1943 ,he was selected as a member of royal society. He was awarded Padma Bhushan in 1954.
  • He was died on 1 January, 1955. After his death, CSIR started shanti swarup bhatnagar award for the eminent scientists to recognise their work.   

Important facts and information about Padma Vibhushan award

padma vibhushan award
Padma Vibhushan is the second highest civilian award of India. The people who gives exceptional and distinguished service to the nation are awarded by this honour.
  • This award was first started on 2 January, 1954. This award ranks after the bharat ratna award and ranks higher than padma bhushan and padma shri.
  • Padma Vibhushan award is awarded by president of India.
  • The first recipitants of this award were Satyendranath Bose, Nandlal Bose, Zakir Hussain, Balasaheb Gangadhar Kher, Jigme Dorji Wangchuk, V. K. Krishna Menon.
  • Padma Vibhushan consists a medal and a citation. The medal has a lotus flower in the centre and "Padma vibhushan" written below the flower.
  • Till 2012, 288 people were awarded by this honour. 

Biography and facts about Azim Premji

Azim Premji is an Indian businessman. He is the chairman of WIPRO and main person behind the success of WIPRO Ltd. He is one of the richest man in India.
  • He was born on 24 July, 1945 in mumbai to a gujrati Muslim family.
    azim premji
    Azim Premji
  • His father Hasham Premji was also a businessmen and owner of the company western india vegetable products. Later Azim Premji took over the charge of the company. He married with Yasmeen. They have two children -Rishad, Tariq.
  • He joined the St. Marry's school in Mumbai. Later he took admission in the Stanford university, Usa. He was unable to complete his electrical engineering degree in Stanford because of the sudden death of his father. He returned to India and took the position of his father's in his company. He was only 21 years old at that time.
  • When he joined WIPRO, its main business area was hydrogenated cooking fats,soaps, vegetable oil. Under Azim Premji's guidance WIPRO expanded its business area and entered into the business of softwares. In a few years WIPRO became a one of the largest IT company of india. He made the million dollars company into a billion dollars company.
  • He is one of the richest man in India. Forbes regarded him as the richest person of India from 1999 to 2005.
  • He believes in the philanthropic causes. He founded the Premji foundation in 2001. These organization works to improve educational facilities, mainly in the rural areas. He is the first Indian who joined the giving pledge ( a promise to give away the most of his wealth to philanthropic causes).
  • He has received many awards and accolades. Some of them are Padma bhushan, Padma vibhushan. He was selected as the most influential people by Times magazine. 
  

SEBI(Securities and Exchange Board of India): facts,information,general knowledge

SEBI (Securities and Exchange Board of India) is a government established authority which regulates the securities market in India.
Logo of Sebi
Logo of Sebi

  • SEBI was established in 1988 by the government of India. In the year 1992,SEBI Act 1992 was passed in the parliament of India which made SEBI a statutory body.
  • The main office of SEBI is located in Mumbai. Other four regional offices are in Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai & Ahmadabad.
  • SEBI is managed by its board of members. The board of SEBI comprises 1) The Chairman (nominated by  Government of India) 2) Two members from finance ministry 3) one member from RBI (Reserve Bank of India) 4) other five members nominated by Union Government of India (among these five members three members are whole timers ). 
Functions of SEBI:
  • It regulates the security markets in india.
  • It checks the trading of stocks and safes the security market from the malpratices.
  • It regulates the stockbrokers and sub- stockbrockers.
  • It provides education regarding market to the investors to improve their knowledge.
  • It looks after the interest of investors.

Fact and information about indian state Maharashtra

Capital
Mumbai
Founded on
1 May 1960
Population
112,372,972(Rank 2nd )
Maharashtra Map 


Area
307,713 Sq. Km.(Rank 3rd )
Languages
Marathi, Hindi, Urdu, Kannada, Gujarati
Neighbor Indian States
Gujarat, Union territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Goa
Districts
35(Mumbai, Mumbai Suburban (Mumbai Upanagar), Thane, Raigad, Ratnagiri,Sindhudurg, Pune, Satara, Sangli, Solapur, Kolhapur, Nashik, Dhule, Jalgaon, Ahmednagar, Nandurbar, Aurangabad, Jalna, Latur/Lattalur, Nanded, Osmanabad, Parbhani, Hingoli,Beed, Amravati, Akola, Washim, Buldhana ,Yavatmal, Nagpur, Chandrapur, Wardha, Bhandara, Gondia, and Gadchiroli)
Symbols
Animal: Indian giant Squirrel, Bird: Yellow footed green Pigeon, Flower: Lagerstroemia, Tree: Mango
Major Cities
Mumbai, Pune, Nagpur, Kolhapur, Thane, Solapur, Amravati, Sangli, Nanded, Nashik, Aurangabad,
Major Rivers
Godavari, Tapi, Krishna,
Major Mountains
Western Ghats
Festivals
Ganesh Chaturthi, aashadi ekadashi(wari), Krishna Janmashtami, Dasara, Navaratri, Holi, Diwali,
Major Tourist Places
Alibag, Baneshwar, Bhushi dam, Chaul, Film city, Essel world, Brahmagiri, Snake park, Koyna Dam,

Indian President: facts, information, powers

indian president house
Indian president House
President of India is the head of Indian parliamentary system of government.
  • A person is eligible for the post of president only if a) He/she is a citizen of India b) His/her age is greater than 35 years c) He is eligible for election in a lok Sabha seat d) He/she must not hold any other governmental post during his presidency ( except the post of vice-president and governor ).
  • Indian president is elected indirectly by the public of India through the members of the both houses of parliament and members of the state legislature. Each MP and MLA has a value of their vote which is calculated by the population of their state.
  • Indian president is elected for a term of five years. Though there is no limit for the number of times a person can became a president. President of India takes oath infront of the chief justice of India or the senior most judge of supreme court.
  • President can give his resignation to the vice president of India. In the absence of president, vice president acts as the president of India. In the absence of both, chief justice of India acts as the president.
  • On the ground of violation of the constitution, the president can be impeached. The impeachment procedure starts when two third majority of a parliament house passes the resolution. Then the other house of parliament investigates the matter. The president has the right to defend himself. If the two third majority of the other house also passes the resolution then the president stands impeached. 
Powers of Indian president
  • President has the power to appoint senior officials of state
  • Union territories are under the president of India
  • President appoints the prime minister, CAG, attorney general.
  • He/she is the commander in chief of Indian armed forces.
  • He/she has the power to summon sessions of both parliament. President can also dissolve the lok Sabha
  • He can pardon any crimes against a person.
  • Budget is presented before Indian president.
  • Finance commission is appointed by him/her which distributes the revenue between state government and union government
  • Has the power to proclaim national emergency, due to external aggression or internal rebellion.

Mangal- Pandey: facts,biography,history

Mangal Pandey is famous in Indian history as a freedom fighter who gave his life to free the country from the British raj. He played a key role in the revolt of 1857 also known a Sepoy mutiny of 1857.
mangal pandey
Mangal Pandey (1827-1857)

  • Mangal Pandey was born in a Hindu Brahmin family in Uttar Pradesh  on 19 July 1827.
  • He joined the east India company’s army as a Sepoy at an age 22. He was a soldier in the 6th Company of the 34th Bengal Native Infantry.
  • He started the revolt in Barrackpore near Kolkata on March 29, 1857 by attacking his British sergeant. He was arrested by the other sepoys.
  • He  was hanged till death on April 8, 1857. He is also remembered as a first martyr of Indian freedom movement.
  • He was a diligent follower of Hinduism. The reason behind the outburst of his anger  was a cartridge of a riffle( Enfield P-53 rifle). There was  a rumour that the cartridge was greased with fat of cow and pig (in Hindu religion the meat of cow is prohibited).
  • A movie ‘The Rising’ (2005) was made on the events of mangal pandey’s life. His picture was also depicted in a postal stamp by Indian government.

 Quick Facts about Mangal Pandey



Name:
Mangal Pandey
D.O.B.:
19 July 1827
Occupation:
Soldier of East india company’ army
Famous as:
Freedom fighter of indian freedom movement
Died on:
 April 8, 1857
 

General facts and information about the Vedic Period

Vedic Period came after the destruction of Indus valley civilization. This period is called vedic because the four Vedas were composed during this time. In this time the Aryans entered in India. There are many conflicts about the origin of Aryans. Though it is believed that Aryans were semi namadic pastoral people and originated from the area of Caspian sea in central Asia. They entered in India through Khyber pass of the hindukush mountain. Vedic period (BC 1500-600) is divided into two periods-early vedic period (BC 1500-1000) and Late vedic period (BC 1000-600).
Early Vedic Period
map of india during vedic period
Map of India during Vedic Period

  • Aryans first settled in the west-north side of India ( Afghanistan, Punjab,Uttar Pradesh). Mainly in the land of of seven rivers.
  • During this time there were no big kingdoms. People lived in the tribes or small kingdoms. There were families or kulas headed by kulapati, villages or grama headed by grammi.
  • Women had a respectable place in the society. They had the right for education and to participate in religious ceremonies.
  • Four Vedas -rig, sama, yajur, atharva were written during this time. Rig Veda is the oldest religious text. It contains the prayers of God and gayatri mantra. Sama Veda deals with the music. Yajur Veda has the procedures for the performance of sacrifices.  Atharva Veda deals with medicines.
  • At that time cattle were used as currency. Gold and silver were used to make jewellery. Agriculture and cattle rearing were the main profession at that time.
  • During this time four fold caste system ( brahmin, kshatriyas, vaishyas, shudras ) was existed. Brahmins were prist, teachers. Kshatriyas were rulers,solders. Vaishyas were traders. Shudras were workers.
Later or post vedic period
  • Aryans expanded their area and they entered in the gangatic plains also.
  • During this time small kingdoms became large. Large kingdoms like kosala, jury, magadha, kasi etc came into existence. Several wars were occurred during this time.
  • Women lost their social status and dignity in the society. They were not allowed to participate in the public affairs.
  • Kings became very powerful. The gap between Kshatriyas and vaishyas increased.
  • Besides agriculture, trading was increased. External trading was also seen in this time.
  • Several royal ceremonies - rajasuya, vajapeya, ashvamedha yagna were performed at that time by the kings.    

Facts and biography of Dadasaheb Phalke: Father of Indian Cinema

Dadasaheb Phalke also known as "Father of Indian Cinema" was a renowned film director and producer. He was the pioneer of Indian cinema.
  • His original name was Dhundiraj Govind Phalke. He was born on 30 Apr, 1870 at Tryambakeswar,Maharashtra.
    dadasaheb phalke
    Dadasaheb Phalke
  • He was born in a Marathi family. His father was a Sanskrit scholar.
  • He studied in Sir J. J. School of Arts in 1885. From there he went to Kala Bhavan of Baroda. There he learnt about drawing, painting, photography.
  • He started his career as a photographer. Later he started a printing press. He also went to Germany to get introduced with the new technologies.
  • His life made a turn when he watched the silent movie- "The Life of Christ". After watching the movie he borrowed some money from his wife and made the movie "Raja Harishchandra". It was the first movie made by an Indian. It was first shown publicly in Coronation cinema, Mumbai on 3 May,1913.
  • After the success of Raja Harishchandra, he made many movies. In his 19 years film making career, he had made 95 movies and 26 short films. His movie list includes - Satyavan Savitri, Mohini Bhasmasur, Lanka Dahan, Kaliyamadan etc.
  • He started a film company named Hindustan films with other five partners. Later he resigned from the company.
  • His last silent film was Setubandhan and his last movie was Gangavataran. With the emergence of sound films, his style of film making became obsolete.
  • He was died on 16 February 1944 in Nashik.
  • In the honor of this filmmaker, Indian government started "Dadasaheb Phalke Award" in 1969. This is the most prestigious award in Indian cinema. Devika rani Chaudhuri was the first recipient of this award. 

Biography and facts about cricketer Kapil Dev

Kapil Dev was a former Indian cricket team captain and coach. He was right arm pace bowler and an effective batsman. In his captaincy India won the cricket world cup in 1983 for the first time.
  • He was born on 6 January, 1959 in Chandigarh.
    cricketer kapil dev
    Kapil Dev
  • His father was Ramlal Nikhani and his mother was Rajkumari. His father was a building and timber contractor. His parents migrated in India during the partition of India. He is married to Romi Bhatia. They has a daughter Amiya Dev.
  • He made his debut in the domestic cricket in 1975 against Punjab. He played for Haryana in domestic cricket.
  • He made his international test cricket debut on 16 October, 1978 against Pakistan in Faisalabad. India lost that series by 2-0. In that series kapil dev scored the India's fastest test half century of that time in 33 balls.
  • He made his ODI debut on 1 October,1978 against Pakistan. He took 1 wicket and scored 13 runs in that match.
  • He made his debut as Indian cricket team captain against Sri Lanka in 1982-83 season. His biggest achievement as a captain occurred when India won the world cup in 1983. He scored 175 runs of 138 balls against Zimbabwe in a match of world  cup when the teams score was 17/5. Wisden magazine regarded this innings as a one of the top 10 odi batting performances of all time.
  • He holds some of records in cricket history. He is the only all rounder who has got 400 test wickets and 4000 test runs. He also has a record as a youngest test cricketer who has took 300 wickets.
  • He was made coach of Indian cricket team in 1999 for a small time.
  • He has won many awards such as Arjuna award, Padma shri(1982), Padma Bhushan(1991), Wisden Indian  cricketer of  the century (2002). He was included in the Icc cricket hall of fame in 2010.

Kiran Bedi: facts,biography,information

Kiran Bedi is a famous Indian social activist. She is the first woman in India who has joined the IPS ( Indian police service).
  • She was born on 9 June, 1949 in Amritsar, Punjab.
    kiran bedi
    Kiran Bedi
  • Her father was Prakash Peshawaria and her mother was Prem Peshawaria. She has three sisters - shashi, reeta, anu. She is married to Brij Bedi.
  • She completed her schooling from scared heart convent school of Amritsar. She passed her graduation degree in English from government college for woman in Amritsar. She did her masters in political science from Punjab university. She also has a degree in law from university of Delhi. She obtained her Ph. D in social sciences from IIT Delhi in 1993. Her subject was drug abuse and domestic violence.
  • Before joining the Indian police service, she was a lecturer at khalsa college for women, Amritsar. In her career, she held many positions, such as -Traffic commissioner of new Delhi,deputy inspector general of police mizoram,director general of narcotics control bureau. She introduced many reforms during his post in Tihar jail. She took retirement from the IPS in 25 December, 2007.
  • She is also the founder of two organizations navajyoti (1988), India vision foundation (1994). These foundations work to improve living condition of drug addicts and woman.
  • She also took part with the Anna Hazare and Arvind Kejriwal in the protest against corruption and for ensuring a strong lokpal bill.
  • She was awarded by many honours- bharatiya manavata vikas puraskar(2011), Tarun kranti puraskar (2010), public service excellence award, bharat gaurav award (1999).   

Jallianwala Bagh Massacre: facts,information

Jallianwala Bagh Massacre or Amritsar massacre was a important incident in the history of Indian freedom movement during the British Raj.
Jalianwala Bagh Massacre
Jalianwala Bagh Massacre

  • In 1919, British government of India commissioned Rault Act to control the activities of revolutionaries in India. According to this act, the British government had the power to arrest or imprison any suspect without any trial.
  • In Punjab, two famous leaders Dr. Satyapal and Dr. Saifuddin Kichlu were arrested on the basis of rault act. Many protests and rallies were organised against this incident. British government placed Amritsar under the martial law and banned all public rallies and gatherings in Amritsar.
  • On April 13,1919, thousands of people gathered in the jalianwala bagh of Amritsar to celebrate the Sikh baisakhi festival. Among the people there were women, children also. Jalianwala Bagh was surrounded by walls and there was only one main gate and other two-three small lanes for exit.
  • Brigadier general Reginald E.H. Dyer came to the place with fifty rifleman and without any warning ordered them to shoot at the crowd. The shooting was continued for ten minutes and killed thousands of innocent people including children and women. About 1650 rounds were fired.
  • According to the government data about 379 people were death. Whereas some private data showed that the number of death were more than 1000.
  • The incident stirred the whole nation. Many people joined the Indian freedom movement. Rabindranath Tagore gave up his knighthood in the protest. Hunter commission was formed to investigate the incident.
  • After the incident general dyer was suspended. He returned back to Britain. Sarder Udham Singh killed dyer in London on 13 march,1940.
  • A trust was formed in 1920 by Indian national Congress to build a memorial at jalianwala bagh. In 1960, the memorial was inaugurated by Rajendra Prasad.  

Major Dhyan Chand Singh: biography, facts,information

Major Dhyan Chand Singh also known as "wizard of hockey" was an Indian hockey player. He was one of the best player in the world. He is famous in Indian hockey for his three Olympic gold medals.
  • He was born on 29 August, 1905 in Allahabad during the British government.
    dhyan chand singh
    Dhyan chand Singh (1905-1979)
  • His father was Sameshwar Dutt Singh. His father was a soldier in the British army and a hockey player in the army. He had two brothers-Mool Singh, Roop Singh. Roop Singh was also a great hockey player. Dhyan chand's son Ashok dhyan chand was also a hockey player.
  • He studied in the school for only six years due to his fathers transfer from one place to another. In his childhood he was not so much fond of sports.
  • He joined army only at an age of 16. He was able to do this for his impressive skill in hockey.
  • In the beginning, he played only in the army hockey tournaments. In 1926, he was selected for New Zealand tour as a player of Indian team. They won 18 matches among the 21 matches they played ,lost 1 and 2 were drew. His performance was tremendous in the tournament.
  • He played three times for the Indian hockey team in the Olympics- Amsterdam (1928), Los Angels (1932), Berlin ( 1936). In all the tournaments India won. In the Olympic game of 1932, India won the final match defeating USA by 23-1. It was world record for a long time. Among this 23 goals, dhyan chand's goals were 8. In the final match of Berlin Olympic, dhyan chand played half of the match barefooted to increase his speed. India won the match by 8-1.
  • Dhyan chand was retired from the hockey in 1948. In his career, he had scored more than 1000 goals.
  • In 1956, he was awarded padma bhushan. His birthday is celebrated as Indian sports day.
  • Dhyan chand died on 3 December, 1979. It is very unfortunate that these legendary player was ignored by the nation in his last days. When he was suffering from lung cancer, he was send to general ward of AIMS.

Ustad Bismillah Khan: biography and interesting facts

Ustad Bismillah Khan was an Indian classical musician. He used to play shehnai. He was solely responsible for making shehnai popular as it is today.
ustad bismillah khan
Ustad Bismillah Khan

  • He was born on 21 march, 1913 in Dumraon, bihar. His original name was Qamaruddin Khan.
  • His parents were Paigambar Khan and Migrant. His grandfather was Rasool Khan. He got his name "Bismillah" from his grandfather. His ancestors were also musicians. His father used to play shehnai in the court of Maharaja Keshav Prasad Singh.
  • From his childhood, he was trained for the shehnai. His uncle Ali Baidu Vilayatu started to train  him when he was only 6 Years old.
  • He came in the spotlight in 1937 with his concert in Calcutta all India music conference. He played shehnai at redfort of Delhi on 15 August, 1947. He also performed for the first republic day ceremony on 26 January, 1950. He had performed all over the world - Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran, Japan, Usa.
  • He received many awards and honours. Some of them are -bharat ratna (2001), Padma vibhushan (1980), Padma bhushan (1968), Padma shri (1961), tansen  award.
  • He was died on 21 August, 2006 due to cardiac arrest. He was buried at fatemain burial ground of Varanasi.

Bankim Chandra Chatterjee : facts, biography, information

Bankim Chandra Chatterjee also known as Rishi Bankim Chandra Chattopadyay was famous Indian writer and novelist. He is the author of Indian national song "Vande  Mataram".
  • He was born on 27 June, 1838 in kanthalpara, North 24 Parganas,West Bengal.
    bankim chandra chatterjee
    Bankim Chandra Chatterjee(1838-1892)
  • He was born in a Bengali Brahmin family. His father was Jadabchandra Chattopadhyay and his mother was durgadevi. His father was a government officer and Deputy collector.
  • He studied at Mohsin college of hooghly. Later he took admission in the presidency college of Calcutta. He also had a degree in law.
  • He started his career as a deputy collector and later became a deputy magistrate. He served as a government officer for about thirty years.
  • 'Rajmohans wife' was his first fiction which was published. His first novel 'Durgeshnondini' was published in 1865. His other novels are - 'kapalkundala' (1866), 'mrinalini' (1869), 'vishbriksha' (1873), 'chandrasekher' (1877), 'rajani' (1877), 'anand math' (1882), 'devi chaudhurani' (1884).
  • Among the novels his most popular novel is anand math. This novel includes the song 'vande mataram'. This novel inspired the freedom fighters to fight for their country.
  • In April 1892 ,he started 'Bangadarshan' a Bengali literary magazine.
  • He was died on 8 April, 1894.

Interesting facts and information about Bharat Ratna award

Bharat Ratna is the most prestigious award given by Indian government. Anyone with a great performance in any field is eligible for this honor.
  • The medal looks like a peepul leaf with “Bharat Ratna” written on it in Devanagari script. An image of sun is also printed on it. The back side of the award carries the state emblem and motto.
facts about bharat ratna
Bharat Ratna Medal
  • The award was started by formal President of India Rajendra Prasad on 2nd January, 1954. At that time only the alive people were eligible for their national service. Later these criteria were changed.
  • The first person to receive Bharat Ratna was scientist C.V. Raman and the first person to receive Bharat Ratna after death is Lal Bahadur Shashtri.
  • Rajiv Gandhi is the youngest receiver (after death, at age 47) of the award and Indira Gandhi is the youngest alive receiver (at age 54) of the award.
  • Vallabhbhai Patel is the eldest to receive (after death, at age 116) the award and Gulzarilal Nanda is the eldest alive person to receive (at age 99) the award.
  • Among 41 awards given so far only 2 awards were given to foreign citizen-Nelson Mandela (1990), Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (1987).
  • Subhas Chandra Bose was awarded with Bharat Ratna posthumously in 1992. But due to controversy (as there is no evidence of Subhas Chandra Bose’s death) the award was withdrawn. It is the only incident in the history of Bharat Ratna that an award was withdrawn.

Muhammad bin Tughluq:facts,biography,history

Muhammad bin Tughluq also known as Jauna Khan was a sultan of delhi. He is famous for many reasons in Indian history. He was a very talented person but due to impatience and lack of judgement he did not turned into a good emperor.
coin of Muhammad bin Tughluq
Coin of Muhammad bin Tughluq
  • Muhammad bin Tughluq was the son of Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq, the founder of Tughlaq dynasty.
  • He became the sultan after the death of his father in 1325. He ruled for about 26 years till his death on 20 March 1351.
  • He was a genius and had interest in astronomy, logic and mathematics. He learnt many languages like Persian, Arabic, and Turkish. He also had knowledge in Medicine. Historian Lane Pole believed that he was a man beyond his age.
  • As a sultan he took some steps to improve the condition of his kingdom. His ideas behind the steps he took were great. But his impatience failed him to imply them properly. As a result his policies became a reason behind the decline of his kingdom.
  • He was an open minded king. During his time people had the freedom to choose any religion.  

Some wrong policies of Muhammad bin Tughluq

Policy Reason Why Failed
Transfer of Capital from Delhi to Daulatabad Daulatabad was located in the centre of his kingdom. He thought it would help him to control the whole kingdom from there.
It was safe from the attacks of Mongals.
It was easy to control the southern part of his kingdom.
He forced the people of delhi to leave with him.
After some years he changed his mind and retransfer his capital from daulatabad to delhi.
Many people died in this transfer process.
Changing of Silver coins into Bronze Coins At that time there was a depletion of silver.
It costs less to make bronze coins.
New coins were easy to forge. He didn't took any steps to stop forging of coins.
Increment of tax in Doab To increase the profit of government.
Doab was a rich area form other places in agriculture.
collected the increased tax when the production of corn were not good.

Interesting facts and history of Alauddin Khilji:the second Alexander

alauddin khilji
Alauddin Khilji
Alauddin Khilji was the sultan of Delhi. He was the second sultan of the Khilji dynasty and was the most powerful king of this dynasty. He ruled for about twenty years from 1296 to 1316.
  • He became the sultan of Delhi after killing his uncle and father in law Jalal-ud-Din Khilji, the founder of Khilji dynasty.
  • He was a very ambitious person and a warmonger. He liked to call himself ‘The Second Alexander’. He took the title ‘Sikander-i-Sani’.
  • During his regime he expanded his kingdom to a large area. He conquered Gujarat, Ranathambor, Mewar, Malwa, Jalore, Warangal, Mabar and Madurai.
  •  He is also famous in history for defeating the Mongals many times. He won against the mongals in the battles of Jalandhar (1298), Kili (1299), Amroha (1305) and Ravi (1306).
  • Behind the success of his war strategies was a slave called Malik Kafur. He discovered Malik Kafur during the conquest of Gujarat. Malik Kafur was a powerful Army Chief. He helped Alauddin to conquer many states.
  • Alauddin Khilji died in 1316. It is believed that Malik Kafur murdered him.

Conquests of Alauddin Khilji

Conquests Facts
Gujarat Conquests Gujarat was a wealthy state at that time. They had a good trading relations with the Arabs and Persians.
Alauddin Khilji sent the generals Ulugh khan and Nusarat Khan to conquer Gujarat.
King of Gujarat Karna Dev Vaghela fled with his daughter. His wife became queen of Alauddin.
Slave Malik Kafur was released and later he became army chief of alauddin.
Ranathambor Conquests Alauddin conquered Ranathambor form the Hamir Deva in 1301.
Hamir deva and his family got killed in this attack
Hamir deva was a descendant of Prithviraj Chauhan
Chittor Conquests In 1303, he attacked Chittor. At that time Rana Ratan Singh was the king of Chittor.
There is a story that alauddin attacked chittor for the queen Padmini. Though there is no proof of this story.
Conquest Of Malwa Mahlak Dev was the king of Malwa at that time.
Mahlak Dev was killed in a bloody war.
Conquest of Southern India Malik Kafur helped him to conquer Southern India.
He acquired Yadava dynasty of Devagiri, Kakatiya kingdom of Warangal, the Hoyasala dynasty of Dwarasamudra and Pandyas of Madurai.
He was the first muslim king to conquer Southern Indian continents.

South India Rivers


The rivers which covers the area of South India are Godavari, Narmada, Krishna, Mahanadi, Tapti, Sabarmati and there tributary and distributary  rivers.


Rivers Facts Informtion
Godavari Length: 1,465 K.M.
Source: Brahmagiri Mountain, Tryambakeshwar, Nashik, Maharashtra
Mouth: Bay of Bengal
Tributary : Purna, Pranahita, Indravati, Sabari, Taliperu, Pravara, Manjira, Pedda Vagu, Manair, Kinnerasani
Countries: India
Indian States: Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh

  • It is second largest river of India.
  • It is also called the Southern Ganges (dakshin ganga)
  • Jayakwadi Dam built on Godavari is one of the largest earthen dam of India. 
Narmada Length: 1,312 K.M.
Source: Narmada Kund,Amarkantak, Madhya Pradesh
Mouth: Gulf of Khambhat (Arabian Sea)
Tributary : Burhner, Banjar, Sher, Shakkar, Dudhi, Tawa, Ganjal, Kundi, Goi, Karjan, Hiran, Tendoni, Barna, Kolar, Man, Uri, Hatni, Orsang
Countries: India
Indian States: Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat

  • The word Narmada means "The giver of Pleasure".
  • It has many nick names- MP Ganga, Life line of Madhya Pradesh, Rewa,
  • It is the longest west flowing river of india. It divides the  India in southern and northern part.
Tapti Length: 724 K.M.
Source: Multai, Satpura Range, Madhya Pradesh
Mouth: Gulf of Khambhat (Arabian Sea)
Tributary : Mindhola, Girna, Panzara, Waghur, Bori, Shiva, Vaki, Arunavati, Purna
Countries: India
Indian States:  Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat

  • It flows from the east to west.
  • It is believed that tapti is the daughter of Surya and Chhaya.
Mahanadi Length: 858 K.M.
Source: Sihawa, Dhamtari,Chhattisgarh
Mouth: Bay of Bengal
Tributary: Seonath, Telen
Countries: India
Indian States: Chhattisgarh, Odisha

  • Hirakund Dam build on Mahanadi is one of the longest earthen dam of Asia. 
  • The delta build by the rivers Mahanadi and Brahmani is one of the largest of India.
Krishna Length: 1400 K.M.
Source: Mahabaleswar
Mouth: Bay of Bengal
Tributary: Bhima, Dindi, Peddavagu, Halia, Musi, Munneru, Venna, Koyna, Panchganga, Dudhganga, Malaprabha, Tungabhadra
Countries: India
Indian States: Maharashtra, Karnataka, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh

  • It is the third longest river of India.
Kaveri Length: 765 K.M.
Source: Talakaveri, Western Ghats, Karnataka
Mouth: Bay of Bengal
Tributary: Hemavati, Shimsha, Arkavathy, Kabini, Bhavani, Noyyal, Amaravati
Countries: India
Indian States: Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Puducherry

  • The famous  Shivanasamudra Fall is formed on this river. Asia's first hydroelectric plant was built here.
  • Grand Anicut dam is build on Kaveri river. 
Sabarmati Length: 371 K.M.
Source: Dhebar lake, Aravalli Range, Rajasthan
Mouth: Gulf of Cambay (Arabian Sea)
Tributary: Wakal, Sei Nadi, Harnav, Hathmati, Watrak, Madhumati
Countries: India
Indian States: Gujarat, Rajasthan

  • The famous Sabarmati Ashram was build on the banks of this river.

North India Rivers: facts, Information

The rivers which covers the area of north India are Ganges,Indus,Brahmaputra, Luni and there tributary and distributary  rivers.
Gnges, Indus,Brahmaputra
North India Rivers


Rivers Facts Informtion
Ganges Length: 2,525 K.M.
Source: Gangotri Glacier
of Himalaya
Mouth: Bay of Bengal
Tributary : Ramganga, Gomti, Ghaghara, Gandaki, Burhi Gandak, Koshi,
Mahananda, Yamuna, Tamsa, Son, Punpun,
Countries: India, Bangladesh,
Indian States: Uttarakhand,
Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal

  • It is third largest river in account of water discharge.
  • Ganges delta formed by the water of Ganges and Brahmaputra is the largest delta of world.
Brahmaputra Length: 2,900 K.M.
Source: Angsi Glacier of
Himalaya, Tibet
Mouth: Bay of Bengal
Tributary : Dibang , Lohit
, Dhansiri ,Kameng , Manas , Raidak , Jaldhaka , Teesta
Countries: India, China, Bangladesh, Tibet
Indian States: Assam,
Arunachal Pradesh

  • Brahmaputra means “son of Brahma”. It is a rare Indian river which has a male name.
  • It is a braided river.
  • Majuli island is formed by Brahmaputra River.It is one of the largest river island of world
Indus Length: 3,180 K.M. (709
K.M. in India)
Source: SĂȘnggĂȘ Zangbo
(Primary), Gar (Secondary)
Mouth: Arabian Sea
Tributary : Zanskar , Chenab , Sutlej , Soan , Shyok , Gilgit , Kabul , Kurram , Gomal
Countries: Pakistan,
India, China
Indian States: Jammu and Kashmir

  • The word Indus is derived from the word “Sindhu” which means “a body of trembling water, river, stream or ocean”.
  • It is Pakistan’s largest river.
  • Indus Valley Civilization was built around this river. 
  • The word India is derived from the name of Indus River
Luni Length: 495 K.M.
Source: Pushkar valley of the Aravalli Range
Mouth: Rann of Kutch
Tributary: Sukri, Mithri,
Bandi, Khari, Jawai, Guhiya
Countries: India
Indian States: Rajasthan,
Gujarat

  • The meaning of Luni River is Salt River due to its high salinity of water

Sudarsan Pattnaik: facts, biography, information

Sudarsan Pattnaik is a famous Indian sand artist. It is his effort for which sand art became popular in India.
Sudarsan Pattnaik

  • He was born on 15 April, 1977 in a poor family of Odisha. Due to his financial condition, he didn't get the opportunity to study.
  • From his childhood, he started drawing images on sand. His house was near the famous Puri Beach of Odisha. Later he started creating sand art at the beach of Puri. These arts received appreciation from the people and gradually he became popular.
  • He took participation in many national and international sand art competition.  He has won about 27 international competition till now.
  • He founded the 'Sudarsan Sand Art Institute' to educate the youth in sand art. He also wrote a book on sand art. 
  • He also use his art to spread social awareness among the people. His sculpture on global warming earned him a great respect from all over the world.
  • In 2014, he was awarded with the Padma Shri by Government of India. He also won Bharat Jyoti award in 2001, National youth award 2005-2006, National tourism award 2005-2006.
Some of his sculptures....
sculpture build by S.Pattnaik to spread the no smoking message



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