Interesting facts and Information about RBI (Reserve Bank of India)

Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is the central banking authority of India. It manages the different policies regarding Indian currency (Rupee). It also plays a critical role in development policies of Government of India.
seal of RBI
Seal of RBI

  • RBI was established on 1st April, 1935. It was constituted under the Reserve bank of India Act 1934. On the recommendation of Hilton Young Commission in 1926. At that time it was a privately owned institution. After the independence of India, it was nationalized in 1949.
  • RBI is controlled by the Central Board of Directors. Indian government appoints the directors for four years tenure. The central board of directors comprises Governor, four deputy governor and fifteen directors.
  • The first governor of RBI was Sir Osborne Smith (1935-1937). The first Indian governor was CD Deshmukh (1943-1949). Manmohan Singh is the only Prime Minister who also was a Governor of RBI. Current Governor is Raghuram Rajan.
  • At first RBI’s main office was located in Kolkata. It was moved to Mumbai in 1937. It has four zonal offices and about 22 regional offices. It also runs two training colleges-Reserve Bank Staff College at Chennai and College of Agricultural Banking at Pune.
  • Its financial year is from 1 July to 30 June. The emblem of RBI is a tiger and a Palm tree.

Some Main functions of Reserve Bank of India

It is solely responsible for creating notes of all domination.
It acts as a central bank for the other commercial banks. It also helps in interbank fund transfer.
It is the main monetary authority of India.
It regulates the credit and currency system in India.
It maintains public confidence in the banks, protects depositors interest and provides cost-effective banking services to the public.

Interesting facts and information on Census 2011 of India

Census 2011 of India was the 15th census. The commissioner of 2011 Indian census was Shri C.Chandramouli. This census covered almost every town and villages in India.
census 2011 of india
  • According to this survey, total population of India is 1,210,569,573. Among this population 623,121,843 are male (51%) and 587,447,730 are female (48%).
  • Uttar Pradesh is the most populous state in India followed by Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, and Madhya Pradesh.
  • Lakshadweep is the least populous Union Territory.
  • 2011 census shows increase in sex ratio. Sex ratio is increased from 933 to 940 in 2011. Kerala with 1084 has the highest sex ratio and Daman & Diu has the lowest sex ratio of 618.
  • A person (above age 7) who can read, write and understand any language is a literate person. The literacy rate calculated by taking all the population is called crude literacy rate and literacy rate calculated by taking only the people of age greater than or equal to age 7 is called effective literacy rate. The effective literacy rate in 2011 is increased to 74.04% from 64.83%.
  • Population density is increased to 382 people per sq. km from 324 people per sq km. 

 Quick Facts About Census 2011

Total Population 1,210,193,422
Male Population 623,724,248 (51.54%)
Female Population 586,469,174 (48.46%)
Population Density 382 per sq. km
Sex Ratio 940 females per 1000 males
Literacy 77, 84, 54,120 (74.04 %)
Literacy  Female 33, 42, 50,358 (65.46 %)
Literacy  Male 44, 42, 03,762 (82.14 %)

Interesting facts and information about indian state west bengal


Capital Kolkata
West Bengal Map
Population 91,347,736 (Rank 4th)

Area
88,752 km2 (Rank 13th)
Languages Bengali, English
Neighbor Countries Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh
Neighbor Indian States Odisha, Jharkhand, Bihar, Sikkim, Assam.
Districts
19 Districts ( Kolkata, Bankura, Birbhum, Burdwan, Coochbehar, Darjeeling, Hoogly, Howrah, Jalpaiguri, Malda, Midnapore, Murshidabad, Nadia, Purulia, North 24 Parganas, South 24 Parganas, North Dinajpur, South Dinajpur.)
Symbols State animal: Fishing cat, State Bird: White throated Kingfisher, State tree: Devil tree, State flower: Night flowering Jasmine
Major Cities Kolkata, Asansol, Siliguri, Durgapur, Howrah, Kharagpur, Haldia, Darjeeling, Burdwan
Major Rivers Adi Ganga,Haldi,Hooghly, Teesta, Torsa, Damodar, Mayurakshi, Mundeswari, Mahananda, Kalindi, Jamuna, Ichamati, Bakreshwar, Gandheswari, Kalindi, Rupnarayan, 
Major Mountain Peaks Sandakfu (3636 Meter) (Highest of West Bengal), Falut, Tiger Hill, Ghum Hill, Deolo Hill, Durpin Hill
Major Mountains Singalila Ridge, Dajeeling-Karsiang range, Chola Range, Buxa-Jayanti range
Festivals Durga Puja, Poila Baishakh (the Bengali New Year), Rathayatra, Dolyatra or Basanta-Utsab, Nobanno, Poush Parbon, Kali Puja, Saraswati Puja, Laxmi Puja.
Major Tourist Places Dajeeling, Sundarbans National Park, Shantiniketan, Jaldhapara Wildlife Sanctuary, Hazarduari Palace, Adina Mosque, Howrah Bridge, The Great Banyan Tree,  Victoria Memorial, Calcutta Museum, Digha Beach.

Interesting facts and information about Himalaya mountain range

Himalayan mountain range is one of the youngest mountain range in the world. It is located in the northern border of India and separates Indian subcontinent from other countries of Asia.
Himalaya Mountain Range
Himalaya Mountain Range
  • Himalayan mountain range formed about 70 million years ago when Indian tectonic plate collided with Eurasian Plate. These plates are still moving. As a result the heights of the mountain is also increasing.
  • It is about 2400 km long with a shape of an arc. Its width varies between 150-400 km. It has three parallel mountain ranges- Lesser Himalaya, Greater Himalaya, Outer Himalaya.
  • Himalayan mountain range is the father of many highest mountain peaks. About 100 mountain peaks of height greater than 7,200 meter are located here. World’s highest mountain Mount Everest is also a part of this mountain range. Other popular peaks are- Karakoram, Kanchenjunga.
  • The word Himalaya means “home of snow”. Because upper portion (above 5,500km) of this mountain range is always covered with snow.
  •  This mountain range is the home of many Glaciers and Rivers. The glaciers of this mountain are the source of rivers such as- Ganges, Indus, Brahmaputra, and Yamuna.
  • Himalaya affects climate of Asia greatly. It is the reason for the heavy rainfall in Terai region. It has a great role behind the creation of Gobi desert.
  • This mountain range is the part of five countries-Bhutan, Nepal, Pakistan, India and China.

Quick facts about Himalayan Mountain Range

Name: Himalaya Mountain Range
Length: 2,400 km
Countries: Afghanistan
Bhutan
Burma
China
India
Nepal
Pakistan
Home of the Peaks: Mount Everest,Karakoram, Kanchenjunga
Home of the Rivers: Ganges,Yamuna, Brahmaputra,Indus

Interesting facts and information about Ganges:the holy river of india

With a length of 2,525km, Ganges is the longest river of India. It is also the second largest river in the world in amounts of water discharge.
  • Ganges is the result of confluence of two rivers- Alakananda and Bhagirathi. The meeting place of these two rivers is known as Devprayag. Alakananda is formed from the snow melt of Nanda Devi, Trisul, and Kamet peaks. Bhagirathi is formed from the Gangotri Glacier, at Gaumukh.
    Ganges satelite view
    Satelite view of Ganges
  • Ganges has many tributary rivers. Among these tributary rivers Ghaghare is the largest tributary river of Ganga followed by Yamuna and Koshi. Yamuna meets with Ganges at Trivenisangam of Allahabad. Some other tributary rivers are Ramganga, Gomti, Gandaki, Burhi Gandak, Mahananda, Tamsa, Son, Punpun.
  • Ganges gets divided into two branches near pakur- Padma and Bhagirathi-Hooghly. Padma enters Bangladesh and empties in Bay of Bengal. Bhagirathi-Hooghly branch meets with Jalangi River at Nabadwip and become known as Hooghly River. Hooghly River empties itself in Bay of Bengal.
  • Hooghly River has many tributary rivers. Among them Damodar is the longest. Two Branches of Brahmaputra River (Jamuna River, Meghna River) meets with Padma in Bangladesh.
  • The Ganges delta is the largest delta of world.
  • Ganges basin covers four countries - China, India, Bangladesh, Nepal. It flows from different states of India (Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, and West Bengal ).
  • Farakka barrage is the largest barrage on Ganga. It was opened on 21 April 1975. It is built near the place where Padma enters Bangladesh and Hooghly continues its flow in West Bengal. Other important barrages built on Ganges are Tehri Dam, Bansagar Dam.
  • It was ranked 5th in the most polluted rivers category in world. Many plans were made to clean up the river but due to its vast basin most of them failed.

Quick facts about river Ganges

Name of River: Ganges
Source: Gangotri Glacier
Destination: Bay of Bengal
Tributary Rivers Ramganga, Gomti, Ghaghara, Gandaki, Burhi Gandak, Koshi, Mahananda, Yamuna, Tamsa, Son, Punpun
Length: 2,525 KM
Indian States in Basin of Ganges: Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, West Bengal, and the Union Territory of Delhi
Cities beside the river Haridwar, Kanpur, Jajmau, Allahabad, Varanasi, Mirzapur, Ghazipur, Patna, Rishikesh, Munger, Bhagalpur, Kolkata

Interesting facts and biography of Mughal emperor Aurangzeb

Aurangzeb was one of the famous mughal emperors. He expanded the Mughal Empire to its highest point. He took the title “Alamgir” (which means world seizer).
  • He was born on 4 November 1618 in Dahod of Gujarat.
    mughal emperor Auranzeb
    Aurangzeb
  • His father was Emperor Shah Jahan and mother was Arjumand Bano Begam (also known as Mumtaz Mahal).
  • From the childhood, he was interested in the Islam. He studied Quran with great interest. He was very courageous. One day when an elephant attacked him, He fought with the elephant very bravely and defeated it. This incident earned him a great respect among the family members and the people. His father rewarded him and appreciated him with the title “Bahadur” (brave).
  • At first he was made the viceroy of Deccan. But when he came three weeks later after his sister’s death in a fire, Shah Jahan got angry and exiled him from the post of viceroy of Deccan. His relationship with his father got bitterer when he favored Dara Shikoh the elder brother of Aurangzeb as the emperor. Some years later Shah Jahan reappointed Aurangzeb as the Viceroy of Deccan.
  • He became the emperor in 1658 after killing his three brothers and imprisoning his father.
  • He built a strong army and started expanding his empire. He conquered Punjab, Bijapur and many other states.
  • During his reign he banned singing, dancing and playing musical instrument in his empire. He was not open-minded and was not able to tolerate other religions like his father and grandfather. He destroyed many Hindu temples.
  • Aurangzeb spends many of his years fighting against the rebellions. During his time Shivaji established the Maratha Empire. The people of Bharatpur stood against him and created Bharatpur state. The Sikhs rebelled against the emperor and fought many battles.
  • He died on 20 February 1707. He was the last famous mughal emperor. After his death, Mughal empires declination started.

Quick Facts about Aurangzeb

Name: Abul Muzaffar Muhi-ud-Din Mohammad Aurangzeb
D.O.B: 4 November 1618
Family: Father: Shah Jahan, Mother: Mumtaz Mahal
Famous: Expanded the mughal emperor to its highest point
Died: 3 March 1707

Interesting facts and history of Prithviraj Chauhan

Prithviraj Chauhan was the hindu king of Chauhan dynasty in 12th century. He is famous in Indian history for his bravery and courage.
  • He was born in 1168 at Ajmer. His father was Someshwar Chauhan, the king of Ajmer and mother was Kamala Devi.
    Prithviraj Chauhan
    Prithviraj Chauhan
  • In his childhood, he killed a tiger with his bare hands. He defeated the king of Gujarat, Bhimdev only at an age of thirteen. For his bravery, his maternal grandfather Angam declared him the king of Delhi.
  • He built a strong Rajput empire and his empire was expanded mainly in the northwest of India. His empire included Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh.
  • Chand Bardai, a poet of Prithviraj Chauhan’s court wrote a poem “Prithviraj Raso” describing Prithviraj’s life. Chand Bardai was also a friend of Prithviraj.
  • He married to Somyukta. She was the daughter of Jaichandra Gahadwal, an enemy of Prithviraj. Their love story is famous in indian history.
  • In 1191, He defeated Shahabuddin Muhammad Ghori in the first battle of Tarrain. He left Muhammad Ghori unharmed and forgave him. In 1192, Ghori again attacked Prithviraj and won the battle of Second Tarrain. Ghori not only arrested Prithviraj but also made him blind with red hot iron rods.
  • Later Prithviraj killed Ghori in an archery competition with the help of his friend Chand Bardai and he got killed by Ghori’s bodyguard.

Quick Facts about Prithviraj Chauhan

Name: Prithviraj Chauhan
Born: 1168 at Ajmer
Family: Father: Someswar Chauhan Mother: Kamala Devi
Famous As: Rajput Emperor, Courage and Bravery
Biography: Prithviraj Raso

Interesting facts and biography of king Harsha Vardhana

Harsha Vardhana was an ancient emperor who ruled the Indian subcontinent. After the Gupta Dynasty’s downfall, it was Harsha Vardhana who united the northern India and established a strong empire.
Harsha Vardhana empire
Harsha Vardhana's Empire
  • Harsha Vardhana was the son of Prabhakara Vardhana, founder of Vardhan Dynasty. Rajya Vardhana was the elder brother of Harsha Vardhana.
  • After the death of Prabhakara Vardhana, Rajya Vardhana became the king. But Raj Vardhana was get murdered by king of Gauda, Sasanka. At that moment, Harsha ascended the throne. He was only sixteen at that time. Ascending the throne he declared battle against Sasanka. But only after the death of Sasanka, he was able to won Gauda.
  • He was abled to bring entire northern India into his kingdom. He won Kannauj, West Bengal, Bihar, Dhruvasena, Ganjam , Punjab. But he lost to Pulakesi II, the Chalukya King of Vatapi. Thus his kingdom was only extended to the border of Narmada River. Southern India was left untouched by him.
  • Harsha Vardhana was also a great author. He wrote three plays in Sanskrit-Nagananda, Ratnavali and Priyadarsika. His court had many great people. His court poet Bana wrote Harsha Charitha.
  • He was a Mahayana Buddhist. But he was open minded and gave freedom to his people to follow any religion. He build many stupas in the name of Buddha.
  • During his time Nalanda University was the centre of education. He donated to the university. Many seals of him were found in the university.
  • Chinese pilgrim Hieun Tsang visited at that time and wrote many things about the king in his book  Si-Yu-Ki which means My Experiences.
  • He died in 647 A.D. After his death his empire again broke down into smaller regions.

Quick Facts About Harsha Vardhana

Name: Harsha Vardhana
Family: Father:Prabhakara Vardhana Brother: Rajya Vardhana
Famous for: Emperor, Poet
Wrote: Plays:Nagananda, Ratnavali and Priyadarsika
Died: 647 A.D.

Interesting facts and information about Gupta empire:the golden age of indian history

Gupta Empire was one of the greatest empires which had ruled India. During this time, India made a huge progress in science, arts and literature. Thus, this period is sometime referred as “Golden Age of India”.
  • Maharaja Sri Gupta was the founder of the Gupta empire and Shashakgupta was the last emperor of this empire.
  • Gupta Empire was existed about 230 years from 320 CE to 550 CE.
  • During this period, the social economic position of shudras improved very much. But the position of women in society reduced drastically. It should be noted that the first Sati was occurred during this time only.
  • Gold coins and silver coins were used as currency. Gold coins were called Dinars and Silver coins were referred as Rupyakas. Gold coins were made in huge number during this era.
  • Sanskrit language reached its glory during this time. It was the court language.
  • The Chinese pilgrim Fa-Hien visited during the reign of Chandragupta II. His writings are one of the source of Gupta history.
  • This period was truly remarkable for temple architecture and sculpture development. Several artistically rich temples were built. Such as – Dashavatara Temple of Deogarh, Vishnu Temple of Tigawa, Parvati Temple of Nachria Kuthara, Dhammekh Temple of Sarnath. Gandhara and Mathura were the two main centers of Sculptures.
  • Buddhist arts also flourished. One of the great example of Buddhist art of this dynasty was the Ajanta Paintings.
  • This age was truly a golden age for Sanskrit literature. Many Hindu epics were composed during this period. The two Hindu epic Ramayana and Mahabharata reached their peak in this time. Puranas and Smritis were developed in this era. Poem and prose both were developed in this era.
  • Some of the most talented scholars were born in this period. Such as – Kalidasa, Vatsyana, Harisena, Aryabhata, Brahmagupta, Vishnu Sharma, Bharavi.
  • Gupta empire achieved a lot in Astronomy, Mathematics, and Ayurveda. The invention of number zero and algebra was carried out in this period only.
  • Nalanda University was built during this time. This university was the center for the education at that time. It was one of the oldest educational institute of the world.
  • The reason behind the fall of Gupta empire was the invasion of Hunas and weak leadership of later emperors. Due to which feudatories rose in Gupta empire and gradually Gupta empire collapsed.

  • gupta empire
    Gupta Empire

Some famous emperors of Gupta Dynasty

Emperor Reign Period Facts
Chandragupta 319-335 A.D
  • He was the son of Ghatotkacha and grandson of Srigupta
  • He fought many battles and expanded the gupta empire.
  • He married to Kumaradevi which made the gupta empire a powerful empire.
  • He took the title 'Maharajadiraja' , which means king of kings
Samudragupta 335 - 375 A.D
  • He was the son of Chandragupta.
  • He expanded the empire rapidly. He also organised Ashwamedha yajna. He is called "Indian Napoleon".
  • During this time many great discoveries were made in different fields.
  • He was also called Kaviraj. He wrote many poems.
  • He was believer of Hinduism but also respected other religions.
Chandragupta II 375 - 414 A.D
  • He was the son of Samudragupta.
  • He is also known as Vikramaditya.
  • He conquered the peninsula of Saurashtra via the Arabian Sea.
  • His court had Navaratna (Nine Jewels). Kalidas was one of the jewel among this Navaratna.
  • Some of the great hindu art were created during his reign.
Kumaragupta 415 - 455 AD
  • He was the son of Chandragupta II.
  • He assumed the title, Mahendraditya.
  • Nalanda was established during his reign.
Skandagupta 455 - 467 A.D
  • He was the son of Kumaragupta.
  • He took the title of Vikramaditya and Kramaditya.
  • He defeated the Pushyamitra who became powerful during the period of Kumaragupta.
  • He also defeated the White Hunas. This war effected the wealth of the gupta empire.

Great scholars of Gupta Empire and their work

Scholars Facts
Kalidasa
  • Was a great Sanskrit poet and dramatist
  • Some of his notable works are Abhijnanasakuntalam, Meghaduta, Kumarasambhava, Mrichchakatica
  • His writings are primarily based on puranas
Aryabhatta
  • Was a mathematician and astronomer
  • He was the inventor of number zero and algebra
  • He also introduced the idea of solar eclipse and rotation of earth on it axis
  • Some of his notable works are Aryabhatiya and Aryasiddhanta
Dhanvantri
  • Was a great physician
  • He was also referred as Father of Ayurveda
Brahmagupta
  • Was a great Mathematician and Astronomer
  • He wrote the Brahmasphutasiddhanta
  • He was the first to use zero as a number and defined rules to compute with zero
Vatsyayana
  • He was a famous philosopher
  • His notable work is Kamasutra
Vishnu Sharma
  • Was a author
  • His notable work is Panchatantra and Hitopadesha
  • Panchatantra is one of the most translated book in history
Harisena
  • Was a great Sanskrit poet
  • He was the court poet of Samudragupta
  • His famous poet about the Samdragupta is written on the Allahabad Pillar
Bhasa
  • Was a famous dramatist
Bharavi
  • Was a famous poet
  • His notable work is Kiratarjuniya. It is based on the combat of Arjuna and Shiva
Varamihira
  • Was a famous astronomer, astrologer and mathematician
  • His notable works are Panchasiddhantika, Brihatsamhita, and Brihatjataka

Chhatrapati Maharaj Shivaji:facts,history,biography

Shivaji also known as Chhatrapati Shivaji was an Indian emperor and founder of Maratha Empire. Shivaji Maharaj was a brave and kind emperor.
  • He was born around 7 April, 1627 in a fort of Pune (there is a confusion about the exact date).
    chhatrapati shivaji maharaj
    Shivaji Maharaj
  • His parents were Shahaji Bhosale and Jijabai. His father was a Mercenary of Bijapur sultan. His Guru Dadoji Kondeo was a friend of Shahaji. His mother and his guru transferred the idea of Hindavi Swarajya (an empire which will be ruled by Hindu king and not by Muslim king) to him.
  • From childhood he was a brave boy and showed the qualities of a ruler. He had great interest in religious teachings. He studied Ramayana and Mahabharata with great interest.
  • His first attack was on the Torna fort. He captured the fort only at an age of 16. After capturing Torna fort, he captured Kondana and Rajgad forts. At the rise of Shivaji’s power Bijapur sultan arrested his father. Shivaji captured the forts of Purander and Javeli after rescuing his father from the Bijapur sultan’s prison.
  • Mughal samrat Aurangzeb sent Jai Singh and Dilip Khan to stop Shivaji. Shivaji was forced to sign the treaty of Purander. According to this treaty, he gave about 24 forts to mughal king. He was invited to Agra by Aurangjeb. Shivaji was arrested and imprisoned in Agra. But he escaped from Agra and returned to his kingdom. Returning from imprison, he recaptured the forts which he lost in the treaty of Purander. During this time he took the title ‘Chhatrapati’.
  • He was the head person in his administration. But there were other persons and cabinets (Ashtapradhan mandal composed of eight ministers) to help him. Many taxes were collected at that time but he never collected taxes forcefully. People had the freedom to choose any religion. He took care of his people like a father.
  • He built a strong army. He introduced the guerrilla warfare tactics. He also built a strong Navy. He is called the “Father of Indian Navy”.
  • Shivaji died in 1680 after suffering fever for 3 weeks.

Quick facts about Shivaji

Name: Shivaji Bhosle
Born: 1627
Family: Father: Shahaji Bhosale Mother: Jijabai
A.K.A Chhatrapati Shivaji, Father of Indian Navy
Famous as: Founder of Maratha empire
Died: 1680